Encyclopédie

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Encyclopédie

(äNsēklôpādē`), the work of the French Encyclopedists, or philosophes. The full title was Encyclopédie; ou, Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts, et des métiers. This work was originally planned as a translation of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopedia (1st ed. 1728), and the first editor was the Abbé Gua de Malves. The project was abandoned because of disagreements, and Le Breton, the publisher, agreed to let Denis DiderotDiderot, Denis
, 1713–84, French encyclopedist, philosopher of materialism, and critic of art and literature, b. Langres. He was also a novelist, satirist, and dramatist. Diderot was enormously influential in shaping the rationalistic spirit of the 18th cent.
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 and Jean le Rond d'AlembertAlembert, Jean le Rond d'
, 1717–83, French mathematician and philosopher. The illegitimate son of the chevalier Destouches, he was named for the St. Jean le Rond church, on whose steps he was found. His father had him educated.
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 edit an entirely new work. With the aid of QuesnayQuesnay, François
, 1694–1774, French economist, founder of the physiocratic school. A physician to Louis XV, he did not begin his economic studies until 1756, when he wrote the articles "Fermiers" [farmers] and "Grains" for the Encyclopédie.
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, MontesquieuMontesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat, baron de la Brède et de
, 1689–1755, French jurist and political philosopher. He was councillor (1714) of the parlement of Bordeaux and its president (1716–28) after the death of an uncle, whom he succeeded in both title
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, VoltaireVoltaire, François Marie Arouet de
, 1694–1778, French philosopher and author, whose original name was Arouet. One of the towering geniuses in literary and intellectual history, Voltaire personifies the Enlightenment.
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, J. J. RousseauRousseau, Jean Jacques
, 1712–78, Swiss-French philosopher, author, political theorist, and composer. Life and Works

Rousseau was born at Geneva, the son of a Calvinist watchmaker.
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, TurgotTurgot, Anne Robert Jacques
, 1727–81, French economist, comptroller general of finances (1774–76). The son of a rich merchant, he showed precocious ability at school and at the Sorbonne.
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, and others, the two editors produced the first volume in 1751, with a famous "preliminary discourse" signed by Alembert. The discourse indicated the aims of the project and then presented definitions and histories of science and the arts. The rational, secular emphasis of the whole volume infuriated the Jesuits, who attacked the work as irreligious and used their influence to convince the government to withdraw (1759) the official permit. Alembert resigned as editor. The project was able to continue, however, as a result of Diderot's perseverance and the support he received from the statesman Malesherbes. With the help of the chevalier de Jaucourt, Diderot brought the clandestine printing of the work to completion in 1772. Of the 28 volumes, 11 were devoted to plates illustrating the industrial arts; Diderot compiled this information and made the drawings. When the work was in page proof, Diderot discovered that deletions made by the printer had mutilated many articles containing liberal opinions. Despite this unofficial censorship the Encyclopédie championed the skepticism and rationalism of the EnlightenmentEnlightenment,
term applied to the mainstream of thought of 18th-century Europe and America. Background and Basic Tenets

The scientific and intellectual developments of the 17th cent.
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. By 1780 a five-volume supplement and a two-volume index were added, compiled under other editors. The success of the Encyclopédie was immediate, and its influence was incalculable. Through its stress on scientific determinism and its attacks on legal, juridical, and clerical abuses, the Encyclopédie was a major factor in the intellectual preparation for the French Revolution.

Bibliography

See selections ed. by N. S. Hoyt and T. Cassirer (tr. 1965); R. N. Schwab et al., Inventory of Diderot's Encyclopédie (1971); J. Lough, The Encyclopédie (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
After 1756, as argued above, the Sorbonne's ability to act independently of either the Parlement or the General Assembly of the Clergy was badly strained, and those closest to Diderot and the Encyclopedie were further impelled to harden their vitriol against the Church for what they considered to be a politically motivated inquisition having more to do with internecine rivalry within the church than with any particular danger from new philosophies of Enlightenment.
Encyclopedie des chemins de fer st des machines a vapeur.
Further weakening the essay is a long segment on the uses of the word "peste" in the Encyclopedie.
In the days when knowledge was in the hands of the few and it could be comprehensively summarized in the pages of the Encyclopedie, the intellectual could plausibly say he knew something which most of his society did not.
In some sense the 125-page facsimile of Philidor's multi-media manuscript and the copy of 'Choregraphie' from the Encyclopedie are the core of this volume.
While editing the Encyclopedie, Diderot composed most of his own important works as well.
Lucien Goldmann once described the Encyclopedie as the single work that perfectly expressed the values of the society it defined, compassing, in alphabetical order (an innovation), everything it would be useful to know in order to exploit the world through knowledge.
Based on the award-winning World Book Student Discovery Encyclopedia, Encyclopedie Decouverte offers French-speaking students finger-tip access to reliable information.
Sahraoui, emerite jockey qui a marque de son empreinte les plus belles pages de l'hippodrome du Caroubier dans sa splendeur, en menant avec succes les pensionnaires de son defunt pere Mohamed Sahraoui, [beaucoup moins que] Didi Hamid [beaucoup plus grand que] comme on aimait l'appeler, un grand monsieur des courses, une encyclopedie vivante du noble animal, le cheval, qui a forme les meilleurs jockeys de l'epoque et qui nous a laisse un vide incommensurable que nul ne pourra combler, c'est la un petit hommage a notre humble facon afin que nul ne l'oublie, que Dieu Tout-Puissant ait son ame.
Mixing literary criticism and historical analysis, he begins by examining Diderot's writings in the Supplement au voyage de Bougainville, Histoire des deux Indes, and the Encyclopedie, exploring how Diderot exemplified the double movement in the French Enlightenment represented by a dual impulse to incorporate and comprehend universally while also emphasizing cultural and ethnic singularity.
A quick look into Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert's encyclopedia punctures any such stark, categorical divisions; For example, they immediately define "reason" as "that natural faculty given by God" ("Raison," in the Encyclopedie, ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers, etc.
Le salon s'est articule sur une lecture approfondie de cette encyclopedie presentee par Said El-Lawendi, directeur du Centre d'etudes politiques et strategiques d'Al-Ahram.