Endemics


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Related to Endemics: Endemic species

Endemics

 

species, genera, families, and other taxonomic units (systematic categories) of plants and animals whose range is limited to a relatively small region.

The range of some endemics is particularly limited. For example, the colubrid Oreotrochilus chimboraso is found only on Mount Chimborazo (South America) at an elevation of 4,000–5,000 m above sea level. The snail Limnaea convoluta occurs only in one small lake in Ireland. Among plants, the Sequoiadendron are found only on the slopes of the Sierra Nevada in California (USA); Pinus eldarica occupies an area of 25–50 sq km on the northern and northeastern slopes of Mount Eyliar-Bug in Soviet Georgia.

Areas that are isolated geographically or ecologically (deep lakes, mountains, islands) are rich in endemics. For example, endemics constitute 75 percent of the fauna of Lake Tanganyika (East Africa), 76 percent of the fauna of Lake Baikal, and 72 percent of the flora of New Zealand. On the Hawaiian Islands endemics constitute 82 percent of the plant species, all of the terrestrial mollusks (400 to 500 species), most beetle species, and almost all of the land-dwelling birds (55 species).

Endemics are divided into two groups—paleoendemics and neo-endemics. (See alsoCOSMOPOLITE, PALEOENDEMIC, and NEO-ENDEMIC.)

REFERENCES

Darlington, F. Zoogeografiia. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Tolmachev, A. I. Vvedenie v geografiiu rastenii. Leningrad, 1974.
References in periodicals archive ?
This checklist of Bahamian endemics was originally based on the works of Correll and Correll (1982; accepted endemics coded as "C&C") and Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012; accepted endemics coded as "A-R&S").
This appendix includes those species that were accepted as Bahamian endemics by Correll and Correll (1982) (coded as "C&C") or Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012) (coded as A-R&S) that we do not consider as part of the endemic flora of the archipelago.
Prior to our study it was only Taylor (1921) who published a paper focusing on patterns of plant endemism on the Bahamian islands, he recognized 132 endemic species of flowering plants.
The most recent checklist for the Caribbean Islands was published by Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong (2012) and this work identified 92 seed plant endemic species.
In particular, the relatively small subset of soil "specialists" (serpentine endemics) responded differently and often in opposite directions than soil "generalists" (nonendemics, particularly aliens).
Surprisingly, no endemics were found on all continuous sites but no small patches, nor on all patches but no continuous sites (Table 2).
Serpentine endemics are generally considered to be inferior competitors able to tolerate the stress of unusually low levels of calcium (Brooks 1987).
Serpentine endemics formed only 14% of total herbaceous diversity, and the above patterns were obscured when all species were considered.
Schomb., a genus endemic to northern South-America.
(2008) we believe that the following 14 endemic genera, Antillia, Ciceronia, Ekmaniopappus, Feddea, Harnackia, Herodotia, Herreranthus, Ignurbia, Lescaillea, Rhodogeron, Salcedoa, Shafera, Tetraperone, and Thymopsis are highly threatened and likely to be included within the Critically Endangered category of the World Conservation Union (IUCN, 2001).
Seventeen of the 36 lineages have taxa endemic to the Antilles, with 12 of them having both endemic genera and species.
The tribe Senecioneae has the largest number of endemic genera (15 genera) followed by the Eupatorieae with eight endemic genera.