Enders, John Franklin

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Enders, John Franklin,

1897–1985, American bacteriologist, b. West Hartford, Conn., grad. Yale, 1920, Ph.D. Harvard, 1930. He began teaching at Harvard in 1929, became associate professor in 1942, and joined the research staff of Children's Hospital, Boston. The 1954 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Enders, T. H. WellerWeller, Thomas Huckle,
1915–2008, American microbiologist and physician, b. Ann Arbor, Mich., B.A. Univ. of Michigan, 1936, M.D. Harvard, 1940. In 1936 he began teaching at Harvard, and as a specialist in tropical medicine he became professor in the school of public health
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, and F. C. RobbinsRobbins, Frederick Chapman,
1916–2003, American physician, b. Auburn, Ala., grad. Univ. of Missouri, 1938, M.D. Harvard, 1940. He served on the staff of Children's Hospital, Boston, and at Harvard, and from 1952 to 1966 was director of pediatrics at Cleveland Metropolitan
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 for their success in growing polio viruses in cultures of various tissues.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Enders, John Franklin


Born Feb. 10, 1897, in West Hartford, Conn. American virologist. Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1953), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Royal Society of London.

Enders graduated from Yale University in 1920. From 1929 to 1956 he taught at Harvard University. In 1946 he became chief of the laboratory of infectious diseases at Children’s Medical Center in Boston and head of the research department of infectious diseases at Children’s Hospital, also in Boston. He became a professor at Children’s Hospital (Harvard Medical School) in 1956.

Enders’ main works deal with bacteriology, immunology, and virology. He discovered a new type of polysaccharide in pneumococcus and showed the catalytic role of complement in the opsonization of bacteria by specific antibodies. In collaboration with T. Weller and F. Robbins, Enders proved that the poliomyelitis virus is not neurotropic and developed a method of culturing the virus, thus revolutionizing virological research. He also helped develop a measles vaccine.

Enders shared a Nobel Prize in 1954 with Robbins and Weller.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Nicknamed "Major Tom" in Germany, Enders is a former paratrooper with an uncompromising reputation who has clashed with German and French governments before.
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This necessary self sets a limit to the notion, shared by Ender, that subjectivity is textual, that is, a byproduct of the language.
The neighborhoods of the East End were divided in almost innumerable ways, as the poverty shared by almost all East Enders did not necessarily produce feelings of unity and sympathy.
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