Elements (and % weight; dermal and endochondral
, respectively) of a modern specimen were:
Stryker Corporation (Kalamazoo, MI) has patented (1) osteogenic devices comprising a matrix containing substantially pure natural-sourced mammalian osteogenic protein; (2) DNA and amino acid sequences for novel polypeptide chains useful as subunits of dimeric osteogenic proteins; (3) vectors carrying sequences encoding these novel polypeptide chains and host cells transfected with these vectors; (4) methods of producing these polypeptide chains using recombinant DNA technology; (5) antibodies specific for these novel polypeptide chains; (6) osteogenic devices comprising these recombinantly produced proteins in association with an appropriate carrier matrix; and (7) methods of using the osteogenic devices to mimic the natural course of endochondral
bone formation in mammals.
Proliferation of fibrous tissue at the injury site leads to metaplasia and formation of cartilage that calcifies, followed by endochondral
ossification and lamellar bone trabeculation.
The time in which ossification first appeared was noted for a number of bones of the membranous and endochondral
skeletons (Table 2).
(9) It has been reported that endochondral
bone formation is stimulated in response to local injection of IGF-1 into the mature rat condyles' articular capsule.
The contralateral otic capsule demonstrates the normal dense appearance of endochondral
They ossify by the process of endochondral
ossification with a small portion ossifying in membrane.
The non vascularized bone grafts are often taken from endochondral
bone e.g iliac bone, ribs or from membranous origin e.g the skull, obtaining split-thickness calvarial grafts, or from the jaw, especially for fire arm injuries, post ablative reconstruction after tumour surgery, secondary alveolar bone grafting dentoalveolar surgery, implantology and complex craniofacial defects.10,11
During development, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) give rise to three germ layers in which the mesoderm is a major source of the mesenchymal precursors giving rise to most of the bony skeleton via the formation of cartilage intermediate in a process called endochondral
OC may occur on any bone in which endochondral
The amino-terminal propeptide of C-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) has mainly been implicated as a paracrine/endocrine factor involved in regulation of endochondral
growth (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14, 15).
(8) Calcium is then deposited in the callus, and this soft callus then becomes bone through the process of endochondral