Endodermis

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Endodermis

The single layer of plant cells that is located between the cortex and the vascular (xylem and phloem) tissues. It has its most obvious development in roots and subaerial stems. The endodermis has many apparent functions: absorption of water, selection of solutes and ions, and production of oils, antibiotic phenols, and acetylenic acids.

The endodermis has been found to have extra sets of chromosomes as compared with cortical and other cells in the plant. In some plants the chromosome numbers may be so high in the endodermis that four sets of chromosomes may occur in each endodermal cell. The larger amount of nuclear material and nucleic acid in the cells of the endodermis may in part account for the great capacity of endodermal cells to produce large amounts of chemical substances, such as acetylenic oils, high in caloric energy. See Cortex (plant)

Endodermis

 

the innermost single-row layer of compact parenchymatous cells of the primary cortex adjacent to the central cylinder of the axial organs of higher plants. The endodermis is not highly differentiated in stems and usually contains secondary starch. In the roots, the radial and transverse walls of the endodermal cells have bandlike thickenings containing suberin and lignin. The cells involved in the exchange of molecules remain thin-walled. Thus, the endodermis is a physiological barrier that regulates the entry of water and ions from the primary cortex to the central cylinder of the root.

endodermis

[¦en·dō¦dər·məs]
(botany)
The innermost tissue of the cortex of most plant roots and certain stems consisting of a single layer of at least partly suberized or cutinized cells; functions to control the movement of water and other substances into and out of the stele.
References in periodicals archive ?
The hydrophobic barrier that seals the extracellular apoplastic space between neighboring endodermal cells is called the Casparian strip (shown in red).
After acquiring water by the velamen, the exodermis and endodermal cells do contribute to their channeling through cortex.
Expression of brachyury is induced by FGF signaling from the endodermal cells adjacent to the notochord precursor cells (Nakatani et al.
The endodermal cell membranes are selectively permeable, as are all cell membranes, and act to screen ions.
Crump determined that in zebrafish the endodermal cells formed tissue that acted as a kind of scaffolding for the development of bone, muscle and nerve tissue in a very focused part of its head.
One of the constraints that may have limited the heterochronic shifts in the cleavage patterns is that a minimal and fixed number of five cleavage cycles is required for the separation of the ecto- and endodermal cells, independent of the amount of yolk or environmental adaptations.
The endodermal cells differentiate into various types of secretory and absorptive cells.
Mesenchymal and endodermal cells are also differentiated in the trunk region.
Doing it too early, makes the cells begin to differentiate, for example into neurons or endodermal cells, and they are not reprogrammed.
Microscopic appearance of tumour is variable, but usually includes malignant endodermal cells.
Apical AJs persist through gastrulation, though are reduced in number in the invaginating endodermal cells (Kraus and Technau, 2006; Magie et al.
The proliferation of endodermal cells within the outpouchings gives rise to paired solid structures.