By contrast, the average concentration of endosulfan sulfate leaving the PAM-treated irrigation bays was greater than or the same as that leaving the control irrigation bays (Fig.
The addition of PAM decreased the total average amount (g) of endosulfan [alpha] by 56%, of endosulfan [beta] by 52%, of endosulfan sulfate by 56%, of total endosulfan by 54%, of chlorothalonil by 49%, and of bupirimate by 38%.
05) decreased the amount of total suspended sediment, endosulfan [alpha], endosulfan sulfate, total endosulfan (sum of endosulfan [alpha], [beta], and sulfate), and chlorothalonil leaving the irrigation bays over the irrigation period.
Endosulfan (applied as [alpha] and [beta] isomers in the ratio of approximately 70:30), endosulfan sulfate (a toxic breakdown product), trifluralin, DDE, and prometryn were studied, to provide a contrast between pesticides of different properties (Table 2) and to show how these properties affect responses to management.
Prior to these applications the surface soil (0-25 mm) contained no detectable [alpha] or [beta] endosulfan, and 30 g/ha of endosulfan sulfate carried over from the previous cotton season.
Total endosulfan is used to describe the sum of [alpha], [beta] isomers and endosulfan sulfate.
Concentrations of total endosulfan in runoff consisted of about equal [alpha] (50-55%) and [beta] (41-45%) isomers, and a low proportion of endosulfan sulfate (3-4%), comparable with concentrations in the soil (0-25 mm) in the proportions 56% [alpha], 41% [beta], and 3% sulfate.
Similarly, losses of endosulfan sulfate were reduced more than 30-fold (Fig.