Endothelium


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endothelium

[‚en·də′thē·lē·əm]
(histology)
The epithelial layer of cells lining the heart and vessels of the circulatory system.

Endothelium

 

a tissue found in animals and man consisting of specialized cells that line the inner surfaces of blood and lymph vessels, as well as the cavities of the heart. The endothelium is formed from the mesenchyme. It consists of a single layer of closely packed flat cells, which are usually separated from underlying tissues by a basal membrane. The endothelium of lymph vessels has no basal membrane. The cytoplasm of endothelial cells of certain capillaries may have pores that account for the permeability of the capillary wall, as, for example, in the renal glomeruli.

The endothelium of the enlarged capillaries of the blood-forming organs and the endothelium present in the liver, adrenal cortex, and certain other organs has a great capacity for phagocytosis. The endothelial cells of these organs belong to the reticuloendothelial system.

References in periodicals archive ?
They too can affect how well the endothelium protects against heart disease.
As can be expected, dense cataracts require more energy and time to break with greater manipulation within the limited chamber; making corneal endothelium vulnerable to damage.
This was to include sufficient number of people from all age groups to estimate the characteristics of corneal endothelium. We used non-contact specular microscope for measurement of CCT and ECD.
The dye stayed in contact with the endothelium for 90 seconds and was washed three times with balanced salt solution.
Constructing a biomimetic corneal endothelium graft with abundant CECs amount and accessible cost budget is a potential way to overcome this difficulty, as in vitro CECs could expand and remain cell phenotype and function in a few passages.[4] Through the years, a number of studies have been done to reduce endothelial to mesenchymal transformation by optimizing culture medium composition and culture substrate.[5],[6],[7] This technique would allow one donor cornea to potentially treat multiple patients.
The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of endothelial cells forming the inner lining of all blood vessels including arteries, veins and capillaries as well as lymphatic system.
The primary mechanism involves inflammation of the endothelium. An inflamed endothelium gets damaged.
However, advances over the past 30 years have revealed that the endothelium acts more like an organ that lines the whole of the circulatory system from the "heart to the smallest capillaries," and whose cells carry out many unique biological functions.
layers of the blood vessel wall, endothelium is the most exposed to
When the barrier function of the endothelium is violated, systemic and local inflammatory mediators are produced under the influence of risk factors (smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia, arterial hypertension, menopause, etc.), leading to a decrease in the stability of endothelial NO synthase that is leading to the development of endothelial dysfunction [12].
After injecting the dispersive OVD, the cohesive OVD was injected deliberately under the first OVD to push it forward against the corneal endothelium. The volume of the dispersive OVD was determined as 0.1 ml because it apparently seemed enough to coat the whole area of the corneal endothelium.
This contractile response was found in presence or absence of endothelium (Olson and Villa, 1991; Evans and Gunderson, 1998; Miller and Vanhoutte, 2000; Moraga and Urriola-Urriola 2014, 2015).

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