(2007) A review on the role of endozoochory
in seed germination.
However, the presence of these animals postharvest or during the fallow season may enhance the endozoochory
of weeds, which are subsequently deposited in feces (DEMINICIS et al., 2009a).
Some species disperse Prosopis seeds by endozoochory
(Bos taurus, D.
is dispersal of diaspores in the digestive tracts of animals.
is a kind of seed dispersal mediated by animals, which feed on fruits and are capable of dispersing seeds efficiently without harming them, enhancing seed survival and germination capacity (Korine et al., 2000; Varela and Bucher, 2006; Baraza and Valiente-Banuet, 2008).
Our results show that Melocactus curvispinus may suffer and gain from the interaction with iguanas as potential seeds dispersers depending on whether seeds are transported externally (epizoochory) or ingested, transported, and defecated (endozoochory
In tropical forests, endozoochory
is the principal form of seed dispersal, which reveals an important interaction between plants and animals (CHARLES-DOMINIQUE, 1986).
Furthermore, the specific role of large wild mammals, including wild boar Sus scrofa, bison Bison bonasus, deer and hare as dispersers of plant seeds, by both endozoochory
and epizoochory, is increasingly recognised (Heinken et al.
About 1% of seeds dispersed by endozoochory
in tropical rain forest are attributable to reptiles (Van der Pijl 1969, Arbelaez & Parrado-Rosselli 2005), and saurocory has received little attention in these habitats.
Peccaries may disperse seeds through either epizoochory or endozoochory
. In the first case, peccaries disperse seeds across short distances by shuffling and trampling seeds while eating, and by expelling seeds after eating the pulp (Fragoso, 1997; Beck, 2006).
Van der Pijl (1969) further divided zoochory into two sub-syndromes: endozoochory
(internal seed transportation) and epizoochory (external seed transportation).
Ants, birds, and mammals are the most important dispersal agents, and there are three main ways of dispersal: epizoochory, dyszoochory, and endozoochory