Endozoochory

Endozoochory

 

the dissemination of fruits or seeds in the alimentary canal of an animal, for example, bird, rodent, or ungulate. Many fruits and seeds are especially brightly colored (Paris quadrifolia, lily of the valley, snowberry) or fragrant (strawberry, raspberry) to attract animals. As the seeds pass through the alimentary canal, their germinating power is frequently increased because of the action of acids and mechanical injury to the seed coats.

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Endozoochory is dispersal of diaspores in the digestive tracts of animals.
Endozoochory is a kind of seed dispersal mediated by animals, which feed on fruits and are capable of dispersing seeds efficiently without harming them, enhancing seed survival and germination capacity (Korine et al.
The green iguana Iguana iguana disperses seeds of Melocactus curvispinus at Tatacoa dry forest (Huila, Colombia) both by endozoochory (internal transport of seeds after ingestion) and by epizoochory (external transport of seeds stuck to the snout).
Endozoochory by native and exotic herbivores in dry areas: Consequences for germination and survival of Prosopis seeds.
In tropical forests, endozoochory is the principal form of seed dispersal, which reveals an important interaction between plants and animals (CHARLES-DOMINIQUE, 1986).
Furthermore, the specific role of large wild mammals, including wild boar Sus scrofa, bison Bison bonasus, deer and hare as dispersers of plant seeds, by both endozoochory and epizoochory, is increasingly recognised (Heinken et al.
About 1% of seeds dispersed by endozoochory in tropical rain forest are attributable to reptiles (Van der Pijl 1969, Arbelaez & Parrado-Rosselli 2005), and saurocory has received little attention in these habitats.
Van der Pijl (1969) further divided zoochory into two sub-syndromes: endozoochory (internal seed transportation) and epizoochory (external seed transportation).
Ants, birds, and mammals are the most important dispersal agents, and there are three main ways of dispersal: epizoochory, dyszoochory, and endozoochory.
Givnish's enhanced version of Darwin's hypothesis of island arborescence, namely a lack of competition from trees on islands accessible chiefly to herbaceous and anemochorous colonists, invoking the influence of now-extinct flightless geese and ducks on the less ancient Hawaiian islands and the role of secondary endozoochory in favoring isolation and speciation via limited dispersal, is another.
This raises the possibility of endozoochory, although simple predation and destruction of seeds appears more likely from fragments of seeds observed.