Andrew II

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Andrew II,

d. 1235, king of Hungary (1205–35), son of Bela III. He continued his predecessors' policy of transferring crown lands to the magnates, and the lesser nobles forced him to issue the Golden Bull (1222), which served as a charter of feudal privilege. This "Magna Carta," expanded in 1231, extended the old nobility's privileges (immunities from local courts, taxes, and military service abroad) to the lesser nobles, most of whom were freemen in the king's service. It made royal ministers responsible to the diet, which was to meet annually, and gave the right of resistance to the nobles if any of the bull's provisions were violated. Foreigners were not to receive office without consent of the diet, and offices were not to be hereditary. Nobles were also protected against arbitrary arrest or punishment. Andrew took part (1217) in the Fifth Crusade. Initially welcoming the Teutonic KnightsTeutonic Knights
or Teutonic Order
, German military religious order founded (1190–91) during the siege of Acre in the Third Crusade. It was originally known as the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem.
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 to S Transylvania in 1211, he later became alarmed at their growing power and expelled them in 1225. He was the father of St. Elizabeth of Hungary and of Bela IV, his successor.
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