The nonuniqueness of the two single-wavenumber representations of the nonlinear energy in the MMT model results in the different appearances of energy spectra and energy budgets, which stem mainly from the nonlocal interactions among modes.
As is the case with the energy spectra, we define three energy transfers: the linear-energy transfer, [T.
Students who complete the course should be able to select the proper detector given the energy and type of particle to be counted and the purpose of the measurement; analyze the results of counting experiments, that is, calculate errors, smooth results, unfold energy spectra
, fit results with a function, and so on; and perform radiation measurements following proper health physics procedures.
The design and construction of the proposed new simulated NORM sample and the subsequent energy spectra characterization measurements are presented as part of this work.
For this purpose, multiple energy spectra measurements were performed using [.
The energy spectra for a large number of NORM samples were measured, including: slate, cat litter, ice melt, roofing tiles, hay, coal, fertilizer, Australian zircon sand, diammonium phosphate (DAP), ISG Pye, CEMEX type FC, monocalcium phosphate (biofos), allanite, monazite, pyrochlore and zircon.
The background subtracted energy spectra acquired for the different NORM samples tested are shown in Figs.
Due to the fact that energy spectra of neutrons are influenced by such characteristics as geometric latitude and altitude coordinates as well as the structure (shield effect) of buildings, measurements of soft error rates vary by location.
Measurement of neutron energy spectra at actual-use sites
The rate of soft errors depends on the energy spectra of neutrons in the atmosphere.
To look for signs of dark energy, the Cambridge astronomers and their colleagues examined the brightness and energy spectra
of X-ray emissions from 26 clusters to calculate the exact distances to the clusters, known to lie between 1 billion and 8 billion light-years from Earth.