is termed as the

energy-momentum tensor which describes the way mass, energy, momentum and pressure are distributed throughout the universe.

in equation (2.3) and requiring the covariant divergence of the

energy-momentum tensor to vanish (i.e.

An important feature of this model is the effect of geometry and the universe content through space-time torsion and trace of momentum-energy tensors, where T is torsion scalar and [THETA] is

energy-momentum tensor trace.

However, he simultaneously emphasized the imperfectness of the

energy-momentum tensor in the accepted form.

The aim of the paper is to give a unified exposition of what, in this author's view, are the main aspects of the subject, in a relatively short space, while, nevertheless, emphasizing or precising some not widely appreciated facts and providing strict proofs of some less obvious matters (mainly the Hilbert

energy-momentum tensor), using not too sophisticated mathematics.

Since it is impossible in a frame of the

energy-momentum tensor formalism to resolve the controversy, we will consider a controversy between unambiguous results of real and thought experiments and terms connected with names of Abraham and Minkowski we will not use.

For matter in its neutral state, the

energy-momentum tensor [T.sub.ab] is given by

As a result, the

energy-momentum tensor can be identified with respect to both parts with no ambiguity [1] and it provides the study of EM energy-momentum relation as close to the source as desired up to quantum limits.

Its 4-curvature is determined from the various contributions to its total

energy-momentum tensor density, namely in the form of matter energy density, radiation pressure and cosmological constant.: