is termed as the energy-momentum tensor
which describes the way mass, energy, momentum and pressure are distributed throughout the universe.
in equation (2.3) and requiring the covariant divergence of the energy-momentum tensor
to vanish (i.e.
An important feature of this model is the effect of geometry and the universe content through space-time torsion and trace of momentum-energy tensors, where T is torsion scalar and [THETA] is energy-momentum tensor
However, he simultaneously emphasized the imperfectness of the energy-momentum tensor
in the accepted form.
The aim of the paper is to give a unified exposition of what, in this author's view, are the main aspects of the subject, in a relatively short space, while, nevertheless, emphasizing or precising some not widely appreciated facts and providing strict proofs of some less obvious matters (mainly the Hilbert energy-momentum tensor
), using not too sophisticated mathematics.
Since it is impossible in a frame of the energy-momentum tensor
formalism to resolve the controversy, we will consider a controversy between unambiguous results of real and thought experiments and terms connected with names of Abraham and Minkowski we will not use.
For matter in its neutral state, the energy-momentum tensor
[T.sub.ab] is given by
As a result, the energy-momentum tensor
can be identified with respect to both parts with no ambiguity  and it provides the study of EM energy-momentum relation as close to the source as desired up to quantum limits.
Its 4-curvature is determined from the various contributions to its total energy-momentum tensor
density, namely in the form of matter energy density, radiation pressure and cosmological constant.: