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(ĕnĭwē`tŏk, ĕnē`wĕtôk), circular atoll, central Pacific, one of the Ralik Chain in the Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands,
officially Republic of the Marshall Islands, independent nation (2005 est. pop. 59,000), in the central Pacific. The Marshalls extend over a 700-mi (1,130-km) area and comprise two major groups: the Ratak Chain in the east, and the Ralik Chain in the west, with
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. Enewetak is c.50 mi (80 km) in circumference and comprises about 40 islets surrounding a large lagoon. Mandated to Japan by the League of Nations in 1920, Enewetak was captured in World War II by U.S. forces. Designated an atomic proving station, it was the site of atomic tests from 1947 to 1962 (first thermonuclear tests). Former residents, evacuated before the tests started, began returning in the early 1970s, and the island was declared to have been rendered safe in 1980.
References in periodicals archive ?
The US started using Runit Island, one of the many islands on Enewetak Atoll as a nuclear dumpsite as early as 1940's and 1950's, nearly 43 atomic bombs were detonated around the island chain in the 1940s and 50s, after conducting a series of atomic explosions, the US government finally started covering its act in the late 1970's, covering the main site with a concrete vault the size of an Australian football stadium, and referred to as "the dome" which is essentially a large disc of nearly 85,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste, TeleSUR reported.
Buesseler and Charctte led a research team that came to the Marshall Islands in 2015 to study the sources, flow, and extent of radioactive contaminants on Bikini and Enewetak Atolls nearly 70 years after the nuclear battering.
In the 1970s, the US government endeavoured to 'clean up' Enewetak Atoll, the other ground zero location besides Bikini, by creating a temporary nuclear storage facility on Runit Island.
The nomination document included a worldwide comparative assessment of nuclear test sites (Republic of the Marshall Islands 2009: 56-60), including Trinity and Nevada (USA), Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands), Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan), Christmas (Kiritimati) Island (Kiribati), Maralinga and Emu Fields (Australia) and Moruroa and Fangatuafa (French Polynesia).
Forty-three of the 67 nuclear tests the US conducted during that period occurred on Enewetak Atoll and 24 on Bikini Atoll.
Eventually, in 1977, Congress approved a nuclear cleanup of Enewetak Atoll.
conducted its first thermonuclear experiment as part of Operation Greenhouse by detonating a 225-kiloton device on Enewetak Atoll in the Pacific nicknamed ''George.
The facility at Enewetak Atoll, which experienced a partial cleanup in the late 1970s, has an aboveground nuclear waste storage site on Runit Island known as the Runit Dome.
The immense ball of flame, cloud of dark dust, evaporated steel tower, melted sand for a thousand feet, 10 million tons of water rising out of the lagoon, waves subsiding from a height of eighty feet to seven feet in three miles were all repeated, in various degrees, 43 times on Enewetak Atoll.
On this date in 1952, the United States exploded the first hydrogen bomb, code-named ''Ivy Mike,'' at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands.
Residents of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls were relocated to other islands during the tests and then displaced for decades due to the resultant radioactive contamination.
nuclear tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls from 1946 to 1958.