a branch of hydrogeology that studies the present state of underground water and those changes in underground water that are caused by the construction and operation of various structures and by other human economic activity. In some cases underground water may be useful for human beings (it may be used for water supply or irrigation); in other cases it is a negative factor that makes construction more difficult and expensive (for example, in areas of permafrost, the rise of groundwater and development of marshes in valuable lands along the shores of reservoirs and canals and at industrial and civil construction sites, and the influx of underground waters and flooding of foundation pits, mines, and quarries).
In order to establish hydrogeological conditions for structures in a region and to determine the necessary basic data for quantitative forecasts (calculations) of the output of water discharging structures, influx of water into foundation pits and mining excavations, and the like, hydrogeological research is done by conducting geological and hydrogeological surveys, using exploration work (boring, cutting exploratory pits and tunnels), experimental filtration work in the field (test pumping from wells, injecting and filling wells and pits with water, experiments to determine the natural velocities of underground water), and geophysical work (electric geophysical exploration, seismic exploration). In addition, the chemical composition of underground water and the water properties of soils are studied in the laboratory. During hydrogeological research it is necessary to enlist the methods of related natural sciences such as hydrology and soil science. The methods of mathematics and mechanics (hydromechanics, filtration theory) are used for quantitative forecasts.
REFERENCESSavarenskii, F. P. Gidrogeologiia, 3rd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1939.
Ovchinnikov, A. M. Obshchaia gidrogeologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1954.
Kamenskii, G. N. Osnovy dinamiki podzemnykh vod, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1943.
Kamenskii, G. N. Poiski i razvedka podzemnykh vod.Moscow-Lenin-grad, 1947.
F. M. BOCHEVER