Engineering drawing


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Engineering drawing

A graphical language used by engineers and other technical personnel associated with the engineering profession. The purpose of engineering drawing is to convey graphically the ideas and information necessary for the construction or analysis of machines, structures, or systems. See Computer graphics, Drafting, Schematic drawing

The basis for much engineering drawing is orthographic representation (projection). Objects are depicted by front, top, side, auxiliary, or oblique views, or combinations of these. The complexity of an object determines the number of views shown. At times, pictorial views are shown. See Pictorial drawing

Engineering drawings often include such features as various types of lines, dimensions, lettered notes, sectional views, and symbols. They may be in the form of carefully planned and checked mechanical drawings, or they may be freehand sketches. Usually a sketch precedes the mechanical drawing.

Many objects have complicated interior details which cannot be clearly shown by means of front, top, side, or pictorial views. Section views enable the engineer or detailer to show the interior detail in such cases. Features of section drawings are cutting-plane symbols, which show where imaginary cutting planes are passed to produce the sections, and section-lining (sometimes called cross-hatching), which appears in the section view on all portions that have been in contact with the cutting plane.

In addition to describing the shape of objects, many drawings must show dimensions, so that workers can build the structure or fabricate parts that will fit together. This is accomplished by placing the required values (measurements) along dimension lines (usually outside the outlines of the object) and by giving additional information in the form of notes which are referenced to the parts in question by angled lines called leaders.

Layout drawings of different types are used in different manufacturing fields for various purposes. One is the plant layout drawing, in which the outline of the building, work areas, aisles, and individual items of equipment are all drawn to scale. Another type of layout, or preliminary assembly, drawing is the design layout, which establishes the position and clearance of parts of an assembly.

A set of working drawings usually includes detail drawings of all parts and an assembly drawing of the complete unit. Assembly drawings vary somewhat in character according to their use, as design assemblies or layouts; working drawing assemblies; general assemblies; installation assemblies; and check assemblies.

Schematic or diagrammatic drawings make use of standard symbols which indicate the direction of flow. In piping and electrical schematic diagrams, symbols are used. The fixtures or components are not labeled in most schematics because the readers usually know what the symbols represent. See Schematic drawing

Structural drawings include design and working drawings for structures such as building, bridges, dams, tanks, and highways. Such drawings form the basis of legal contracts. Structural drawings embody the same principles as do other engineering drawings, but use terminology and dimensioning techiques different from thoses shown in previous illustrations.

References in periodicals archive ?
Contract notice: Completion of an engineering drawing and a legal and financial study for the construction of a network of public initiative very high speed on the territory of the department of aveyron.
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There have been two major changes in recent years, which have affected the perception of engineering drawing as part of the initial academic qualifications of professional engineers; CEng, IEng and Eng Tech, and of Product Designers.
For more than 100 ocean vessels, transporters will find both a ship's photo and engineering drawing.
This is a fairly inexpensive, accurate means of translating an engineering drawing into three dimensions.
com/research/5mcl3c/manual_of) has announced the addition of Elsevier Science and Technology's new book "Manual of Engineering Drawing.
Sightseer's intelligent links allow users to access all related information from a common interface -- the engineering drawing.
After an exhaustive search to replace its existing engineering drawing and document management system, the Nuclear subsidiary of PSEG Power also standardized on ProjectWise.
Preparation of some aspects of the joint permit application is fairly straightforward, including submission of engineering drawings, surveys and photos of the study area.
Some of the new features include Rainbow, EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average) and Poisson EWMA control charts; box and whisker plot for managers; serial device interfacing that allows two-way I/O using device command strings; viewing of engineering drawings in both JPG and BMP format; and much more.
Implemented in October 1988, the MEDALS program serves as DoD's only central locator system for engineering drawings.

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