Braille

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Braille

(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
 planetoid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.

Braille

[brāl]
(communications)
A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.

Braille

Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing

braille

(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
Shortly thereafter, other English speaking countries were invited to participate in the project through the International Council on English Braille (ICEB).
An open-ended question asked the participants to describe the students' knowledge of English braille and braille in the native languages at the beginning of instruction.
They also discussed the use of fingerbraille abbreviations, which include usage similar to English braille contractions, shortening names to recognized acronyms (such as USA), and using context-dependent symbols for, say, names of people in large groups.
The Braille Authority of North America initiated the effort to develop a unified braille code for English-speaking countries and was later supported by the International Council on English Braille.
This article chronicles the need for professional standards in English braille, the evolution of the test, its current administration, and directions for future development and maintenance.
Since the adoption of English braille in 1932 by the United States, braille has been developed quite often by design, but nearly as often by chance.
Perhaps, by Louis Braille's next milestone birthday, the commonality of language and the respective braille codes in all languages will lend themselves to unified braille codes that are similar to the unified English braille code on which the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa are currently struggling to agree.
At the time the translation program was being developed, it was not clear that the available computing power would be sufficient to create software that could implement the trickier rules of English Braille, American Edition (EBAE) with an acceptable degree of accuracy.
7 offers updated translation software for French braille as well as the following English braille codes: Braille Authority of North America, Braille Authority of the United Kingdom, and Unified English Braille; in addition to new translation and templates for European Braille Union/EC Pharma and Esperanto.