1993), mainly in that Psylloidea is the sister group of Heteropterodea, Sternorrhyncha and Cicadomorpha are paraphyletic, and in the internal relationships of the Heteroptera infraorders (Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, and Pentatomomorpha are in a polytomy, Enicocephalomorpha is the sister group of this clade, and the remaining infraorders forms a basal group in an unresolved polytomy).
Although metathoracic scent glands are not easy to observe in Enicocephalomorpha, there is evidence for its presence (Carayon 1962, 1971; Cobben 1978).
Schuh (1979) considered Enicocephalomorpha as the sister group of the remaining Heteroptera, with Leptopodomorpha + Nepomorpha as the sister group of Cimicomorpha + Pentatomomorpha.
Enicocephalomorpha contains two families: Aenictopecheidae and Enicocephalidae (Stys 1989).
Enicocephalomorpha, Dispsocoromorpha, Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha.
Phylogenetic systematics of the most primitive trae bugs (Heteroptera, Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha) [in Czech].
Revision of the new world Enicocephalomorpha (Heteroptera).