Enicocephaloidea

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Enicocephaloidea

[‚en·ə·kō·sef·ə′lȯid·ē·ə]
(invertebrate zoology)
A superfamily of the Hemiptera in the subdivision Geocorisae containing a single family.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Annotated catalogue of Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha, Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha, and Leptopodomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Turkey, with new records.
En Hexapoda se incluyen dos capitulos que tratan los "Collembola" y "Protura y Diplura"; un capitulo sobre Insecta Apterygota: "Archaeognatha y Zygentoma"; y 15 capitulos destinados a discutir y describir los grupos de Insecta Hemimetabola que incluyen a "Ephemeroptera", "Odonata", "Plecoptera", "Psocoptera", "Homoptera: (Fulgoroidea, Cicadoidea, Membracoidea, Cercopoidea, Aphidoidea, Aleyrodidae, Psylloidea y Coccoidea)", "Isoptera", "Thysanoptera", "Orthoptera", "Dermaptera", "Zoraptera", "Embioptera" y "Hemiptera: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Reduviidae y Enicocephalomorpha".
The classification system of true bugs Heteroptera recognizes seven major taxonomic groups, usually referred to as infraorders (Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha, Gerromorpha, Nepomorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Pentatomomorpha, and Cimicomorpha) [1-3], or eight infraorders after the addition the Aradimorpha sensu Sweet [4, 5].
According to Schuh [6] the Enicocephalomorpha (first branch) is a basal, sister group to all remaining infraorders of the Heteroptera.
Similarly, on the basis of morphological evidence, Stys [7,8] placed the Enicocephalomorpha in the most basal clade of the Heteroptera.
1A, 4) and some other Pentatomomorpha and Cimicomorpha resemble those of some more basal clades of the Heteroptera (Enicocephalomorpha, some Dipsocoromorpha, most Gerromorpha) --there is no claval angle, no claval commissure, the outlines of the forewings are smoothly elongate and the forewings overlap freely at the level of about the proximal 1/4-1/2 of the clavus.
In the absence of data on the labial sensilla from the outgroup (the Enicocephalomorpha have been proposed as a basal outgroup by Stys [34, 35], Schuh and Slater [9], after Wheeler et al.
Stys, "Fylogeneticke systematika nejprimitivnejsich plostic (Heteroptera: Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha)," Prace Slovenska Entomologicka Spolocnost' SAV, Bratislva, vol.
(1993), mainly in that Psylloidea is the sister group of Heteropterodea, Sternorrhyncha and Cicadomorpha are paraphyletic, and in the internal relationships of the Heteroptera infraorders (Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, and Pentatomomorpha are in a polytomy, Enicocephalomorpha is the sister group of this clade, and the remaining infraorders forms a basal group in an unresolved polytomy).
Although metathoracic scent glands are not easy to observe in Enicocephalomorpha, there is evidence for its presence (Carayon 1962, 1971; Cobben 1978).
Independent evolution of myrmecomorphy in true bugs is inferred by its occurrence in numerous true bug families (Enicocephalomorpha: Enicocephalidae; Leptopodomorpha: Saldidae; Cimicomorpha: Nabidae and Miridae; Pentatomomorpha: Geocoridae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochrornidae, Alydidae and Pyrrhocoridae--see McIver and Stonedahl, 1993).