Enisei Basin River Port Facilities
Enisei Basin River Port Facilities
the principal water-transport junctions through which the transportation of freight and passengers along the Enisei River and its tributaries is organized. The ports link the industrial and agricultural regions of Krasnoiarsk Krai and Irkutsk Oblast with the other regions close to the river throughout the basin.
The major means of transport in the Enisei River Basin is by river.
Along the Enisei (from Krasnoiarsk Hydroelectric Power Plant to the mouth of the river) manufactured goods and foodstuffs, machinery, equipment, spare parts, metals, metal goods, cement, timber and lumber (for export as well as for domestic use), salt, and petroleum products are transported downstream, and cola, nonferrous metals, timber, building materials, and scrap metal are transported upstream. Above Krasnoiarsk Hydroelectric Power Plant grain, timber, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs are transported to Abakan from agricultural regions along the river. The Krasnoiarsk Reservoir has markedly improved navigating conditions here. In 1970 construction was begun on the Krasnoiarsk ship elevator, which will provide for direct navigation from the mouth of the river to Minusinsk and above. On the upper part of the Enisei in the Tuva ASSR there is local navigation (the chief harbor is Kyzyl).
Along the Angara (from Ust’-Ilim to the mouth) timber is transported downstream for the Maklakovo and Krasnoiarsk lumber combines; upstream there is hauling of petroleum products, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, and building materials. From the area of Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Plant to Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Plant there are shipments of coal, timber, mineral building materials, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, and petroleum products.
In the basin there are (1971) 67 ports, landings, and stopping points under the Ministry of Inland Water Transport of the RSFSR and more than 100 moorings of industrial enterprises. In 1970; 6.7 percent of the total volume of loading and unloading operations performed at the ministry moorings was done at basin ports and landings; there was comprehensive mechanization of 97.8 percent of these operations. Loading and unloading operations at basin ports and landings belonging to the ministry account for utilization of 6.3 percent of the transshipping machinery of the ministry. The length of operating periods in ports of the basin is not identical, ranging from 110 to 185 days.
The principal ports (from the upper reaches of the Enisei to the mouth) are Abakan (since 1963), Krasnoiarsk (since 1939), Igarka (since 1938), Dudinka (since 1949), Irkutsk (since 1958), Svirsk (since 1966), and Bratsk (since 1966).
The Abakan river port facilities are located on the left bank of the Enisei River within the city limits of Abakan at the intersection of the river and the Novokuznetsk-Abakan-Taishet line, 2,842 km from the mouth of the Enisei River. The port receives timber, agricultural goods, and mineral building materials; it ships out coal, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs. There is a spur track to the Abakan station of the Eastern Siberian Railway. When the Krasnoiarsk ship elevator goes into operation, the significance of the Abakan transshipment port will increase.
The Krasnoiarsk river port facilities are located within the city limits of Krasnoiarsk, 2,419 km from the mouth of the Enisei River. It is the largest transshipping port of the basin and the eastern part of the country, providing for the supply of the regions and enterprises of the middle and lower parts of the Enisei and its branches (the Khantaika, Nizhniaia Tunguska, Podkamennaia Tunguska, Angar, and other rivers). Port activity extends for 320 km down the Enisei to the city of Divnogorsk, for 110 km along the Kan River, and for 40 km along the Agul River. The port receives nonferrous metals, ore, timber, mineral building materials, coal, and containers; it dispatches manufactured goods, foodstuffs, machinery, equipment, spare parts, metals, cement, clinker, and salt. Up to 80 percent of freight is shipped to Noril’sk Mining and Metallurgical Combine. In 1970 the volume of freight loading and unloading constituted 21.6 percent of the total for the basin. The port facilities include the freight areas (within the limits of Krasnoiarsk) Zlobino, Enisei (on the right bank), Gorodskoi (on the left bank), and Peschanka, as well as a passenger area with a station.
The Zlobino freight area (near the Zlobino station) is the principal one for transshipping cargo between the railway and the river. Sixty percent of the freight dispatched is for Noril’sk Mining and Metallurgical Combine. The port is being reconstructed (1972). Coal, graphite ore, cement, gravel, and containers are reloaded in the Enisei freight area (near the Enisei station). The Gorodskoi freight area dispatches manufactured goods and foodstuffs produced in Krasnoiarsk. It is not connected with the railway network. There are plans to discontinue freight operations here and to reequip the area for passenger service. The present-day passenger area adjoins the Gorodskoi freight area.
At moorings of industrial enterprises petroleum products, equipment, machinery, and mineral building materials are loaded, and timber, grain, and building materials are unloaded.
Moorings of Igarka Lumber Combine (on the Igarka channel) are located 683 km from the mouth of the Enisei. Sawn wood from the Igarka combine is loaded onto seagoing vessels for export. Transshipping from river to seagoing vessels of export production from the Enisei-Maklakavo industrial center is done in the roadstead.
The port facilities of Dudinka (Ministry of Nonferrous Metallurgy of the USSR) are located at the mouth of the Dudinka, 422 km from the mouth of the Enisei. Freight is received for Noril’sk Mining and Metallurgical Combine. Nonferrous metals, coal, ore, and scrap metal are shipped out. There are separate moorings for receiving river and seagoing vessels, landings providing for port operation during high-water periods, and the intraport railway stations “Rechnye prichaly” and “Morskie prichaly.” The port is connected by railway to Noril’sk. The port is being rebuilt (1972).
The Irkutsk river port facilities are in the center of the city of Irkutsk, 1,782 km from the mouth of the Angara River. It is the principal point for dispatching freight to river regions of Irkutsk Oblast. The area of port activity extends from Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Plant for 120 km downstream. The port ships out grain products, chemical and building materials, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs; it receives grain, coal, timber, and mineral building materials. The volume of loading and unloading operations constitutes 57 percent of the overall volume for the basin (including 93 percent of the building materials). Construction of a new freight area, which does not have a railway connection, was completed in 1970.
The Svirsk river port facilities are located within the city of Svirsk on the left bank of the Angara River, 1,637 km from the mouth. It is a transshipping point for coal of the Cheremkhovo Basin from railway to water transport; timber and mineral construction materials travel in an opposite direction. There is a spur track to the Makar’evo station.
The Bratsk river port facilities are located within the limits of the city of Bratsk on the left shore of Dondir Bay of Bratsk Reservoir. There is transshipping of coal, timber, containers, and mineral building materials. Construction of a spur track to Bratsk station is being completed (1971).
V. F. BEREZIN