Enisei Exile

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Enisei Exile


a place of political exile in prerevolutionary Russia; it was located in Siberia in the former Enisei Province. It came into existence in the 17th century.

The participants in the uprisings of S. Razin, E. Pugachev, and other rebels were sent to the Enisei exile. In the 19th century, Decembrists such as the brothers Beliaev, M. A. Fonvizin, and A. I. lakubovich were sent there, as were M. V. Petrashevskii, who died in exile, the Polish insurrectionists of 1830 and 1863, and, in the 1860’s and 1870’s, revolutionary Narodniks (Populists), including D. A. Klements, A. V. Tyrkov, and N. S. Tiutchev. At the beginning of the 1890’s, the first Social Democrats were exiled there. From 1897 through 1900, V. I. Lenin was in the village of Shushenskoe in Minusinsk District. At the same time, A. A. Vaneev, N. K. Krupskaia, G. M. Krzhizhanovskii, V. K. Kurnatovskii, P. N. Lepeshinskii, O. B. Lepeshinskaia, V. V. Starkov, and others were serving terms of exile. Lenin completed his book The Development of Capitalism in Russia during his exile. In August 1899, in the village of Ermakovskoe, a meeting of 17 exiled Social Democrats discussed and approved a document written by Lenin entitled “A Protest by Russian Social-Democrats,” which came out against the manifesto of the Russian “economists” entitled “Credo.”

After the defeat of the Revolution of 1905–07, a period of mass exile of Bolsheviks and revolutionary workers began to the Enisei Province. Beginning in 1913, la. M. Sverdlov and J. V. Stalin were in Turukhansk Krai, Enisei Province. After 1915, G. I. Petrovskii, A. E. Badaev, M. K. Muranov, F. N. Samoilov, and N. R. Shagov were exiled there. I. F. Dubrovinskii and S. S. Spandarian died in Turukhansk Krai. On the eve of 1917, the region was the home of A. Dzhaparidze, K. I. Nikolaeva, and A. S. Enukidze. After the February Revolution of 1917, the Enisei exile was liquidated.


Eniseiskaia ssylka: Sbornik. Moscow, 1934.
Lenin i Sibir’: Bibliograficheskii ukazatel’, 2nd ed. Novosibirsk, 1970.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.