Enlightened Absolutism

(redirected from Enlightened monarch)

Enlightened Absolutism

 

in several European absolutist states in the second half of the 18th century, a policy that pursued the ideas of the Enlightenment. The policy of enlightened absolutism entailed the implementation of reforms that abolished the most obsolete feudal institutions and that sometimes resulted in progress toward the development of bourgeois society.

In the 18th century, many representatives of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire, advocated the idea of a state headed by an “enlightened monarch” who would be capable of transforming public life on the basis of new, rational principles. With the fragmentation of feudalism, the maturation of the capitalist structure, and the spread of Enlightenment ideas, even the European monarchs were forced to consider making reforms. In a number of countries, feudal monopolies and some of the privileges of certain social estates were abolished, and peasant reforms were carried out. Ecclesiastical reforms were implemented (the subordination of the church to the state, the secularization of church lands, the expulsion of the Jesuits, and the elimination of monastic orders). School instruction and court and legal proceedings were reformed, and there was progress toward religious toleration and the relaxation of censorship. State policies sometimes reflected the ideas of the Physiocrats.

Reforms in the spirit of enlightened absolutism were carried out in a number of countries, including Prussia (during the early reign of Frederick II), Austria (beginning with the reign of Maria Theresa, and especially during the reign of Joseph II), Spain (under Charles III and the Enlightenment thinkers and statesmen P. Abarco de Bolea [the count of Aranda], P. Campomanes, and J. Moñino de Floridablanca), and Portugal (under S. J. de Carvalho, the marquis of Pombal). Enlightened absolutism was also characteristic of Denmark (under the ministers A. Bernstorff and J. F. Struensee, as well as the regent, Prince Frederick), Sweden (Gustavus III), and Russia (Catherine II’s policies during the 1760’s).

Some of the reforms associated with enlightened absolutism contributed objectively to the development of the capitalist structure, but feudal despotism prevailed in the policies of the enlightened sovereigns. The incompatibility between Enlightenment principles and absolutist regimes was most sharply manifested in Prussia under Frederick II. When the feudal absolutist state undertook reforms that infringed on the interests of the nobility, and especially when the reforms assumed a distinctly bourgeois character (for example, A. R. J. Turgot’s reforms of 1774–76 in France), feudal circles expressed resolute opposition, and ultimately the reforms were not implemented.

In general, the policy of enlightened absolutism was successful only in countries where the bourgeoisie was in a comparatively early stage of development. Even in these countries, the period of enlightened absolutism was brief. With the collapse of the feudal absolutist system as a result of the French Revolution, European monarchs abandoned their “liberal” undertakings in the spirit of enlightened absolutism. Almost everywhere the policy of enlightened absolutism gave way to open feudal reaction. In Russia the turning point was the suppression of the Peasant War under the leadership of E. I. Pugachev (1773–75).

REFERENCES

Mittenzwei, J. “Über das Problem des aufgeklärten Absolutismus.” Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaft, 1970, no. 9.
Druzhinin, N. M. “Prosveshchennyi absoliutizm v Rossii.” In the collection Absoliutizm v Rossii (XVII-XVIII vv.). Moscow, 1964.
References in periodicals archive ?
This is a short, sympathetic biography of a man who was widely considered to be an enlightened monarch, and who ruled Ethiopia for almost 60 years.
Some historians claim he was a relatively enlightened monarch whose name was besmirched by his opponents.
Even when the tragic hero seems helplessly carried away by power lust or uncontrollable desire, he ultimately comes to the realization that he must resume his position as an enlightened monarch.
The album features the music that was performed at the court of the Prussian King Frederick the Great (1740-1786), known not only as an enlightened monarch and successful military commander but also as a passionate lover of music, flautist and composer.
During his long reign (1961-99), Hassan II managed to cultivate the image of a relatively enlightened monarch abroad while maintaining strict dictatorial control at home.
The country is ruled by an enlightened monarch, aided by different levels of councils that guarantee democratic involvement.
Morfogen is one of those blessed-by-the-theater-gods professionals who can find new character textures to play in every scene--taking the King from the frail old man who looks to be on his deathbed in Act I, Scene 2, to the enlightened monarch at the end of the play who can teach us all a lesson about the nobility of the human spirit.
Enlightened despotism" Himmelfarb argues, "was an attempt to realize--to enthrone as it were--reason as embodied in the person of an enlightened monarch, a Frederick enlightened by Voltaire, a Catherine by Diderot.
Derzhavin, she argues, presented himself as 'the highest arbiter of Russian values, morality and beauty', a new kind of poet 'for a new type of Enlightened monarch and age', 'the virtuous first minister' occupying the office of leading poet (pp.
As a whole, the collected essays in Ilustracion, ciencia y tecnica en el siglo XVIII espanol affirm that, despite the delay in developing a specific agenda, and the long years spent educating the new generations of naturalists and engineers, the Enlightened monarchs supported a panoply of scientific enterprises, including expeditions, academies, gabinetes, laboratories, observatories, and engineering workshops, whose scientific output, by the latter decades of the eighteenth century, had begun to rival that of European counterparts.
Joseph was the most prominent of the Enlightened Monarchs in this regard, but the Enlightenment was a rich source of criticism of both monasticism and religion; Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau were merely the most prominent leaders of the assault on religious organizations and foundations.