Age of Enlightenment

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Age of Enlightenment

the period of intellectual ferment leading up to the French Revolution, which was distinguished by a fundamental questioning of traditional modes of thought and social organization, and sought to replace these with an exclusive reliance on human reason in determining social practices. Many thinkers and philosophers were associated with these developments, amongst them Voltaire (1694-1778), MONTESQUIEU, Holbach (1723-89), Helvétius (1715-71), Diderot (1713-84) and ROUSSEAU. Nor was the movement merely confined to France; it also embraced numerous other thinkers elsewhere, including members of the so-called SCOTTISH ENLIGHTENMENT, such as Adam FERGUSON and John MILLAR, whose work was especially sociological. Despite a common accord on the importance of reason in human affairs, major differences of view existed between thinkers: Voltaire popularized English liberal doctrines of NATURAL RIGHTS; Holbach and Helvétius took these doctrines further and argued for UTILITARIANISM and representative government; while Rousseau's concept of the SOCIAL CONTRACT led to holistic conceptions of state and society realized in the French Revolution. In retrospect, much Enlightenment thought is seen as superficial, lacking an adequate empirical research base, and above all overconfident about human PROGRESS and the ultimate triumph of Reason. However, the Enlightenment era signalled a final decisive break between traditional and modern thought, and between traditional and modern forms of social organization. See also COMTE, RATIONALISM, GRAND NARRATIVES.
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One of the strong points of the book is given by the harsh critique of today's society found in a deep crisis after a long involution that has its origins in the Enlightment period.
But, he continued, only due enlightment was needed.
Many things in our experience convince us that the historical event of the Enlightment did not make mature adults, and we have not reached that stage yet.
The philosopher's observations are not historically precise, but by "ultimately" he hardly intends a period prior to the Enlightment.
This last case resembles certain former Western literary ideals, such as the concept of the "noble savage" of European Enlightment, suggesting parallels between these two cultures.
He alleged that Imran Khan push the masses of KP to the darkness but Mohammad Nawaz Sharif, a leader of vision, wants to bring back prosperity and enlightment to Pakistan.
Habermas argued that the project of modernity, rooted in the context of Enlightment rationality, was still unfinished and required completion; Lyotard countered with the view that modernity has actually been liquidated by history .
Descartes and the Enlightment, Montreal, McGill-Queens University Press, 1989.
The fourteen selections that make up the main body of the text are devoted to a view of the political enlightment from the Global South, the concept of a borderless world or worlds, the contested nature of the concept of the posthumanities, and a wide variety of other related subjects.