Part I of this Article introduces positivist theory--with particular emphasis on the works of Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, and Raffaele Garofalo--and traces positivism's reception in the United States.
Lombroso's disciples--most notably Enrico Ferri and Raffaele Garofalo (40)--followed in this tradition, though they modified some of Lombroso's more audacious claims by placing emphasis on social or environmental factors that generated criminality.
This shift in perspective produced the positivists' interest in (or perhaps obsession with) the classification of criminal types, which Enrico Ferri envisioned as the central aim of the modern penal process.
28) ENRICO FERRI, CRIMINAL SOCIOLOGY, at xli (1917); see MCLAUGHLIN ET AL.
316 (1917) (reviewing ENRICO FERRI, CRIMINAL SOCIOLOGY (1884)) (praising Ferri for "very sensibly .
103 (1918) (reviewing ENRICO FERRI, CRIMINAL SOCIOLOGY (1917)) ("We owe a considerable debt of gratitude to the learned translators .
Special attention is paid to Italian positivism and its leading figures, Cesare Lombroso and Enrico Ferri, as well as to degeneracy theory--two highly influential movements during the early years of the Institute.
The other major project of the first year of the Institute was the organization of the publication of a series of English language translations (Modern Series) of works by Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, and other European criminologists.
33) The "criminalists" to which they referred were Cesare Lombroso and Enrico Ferri.
Like Lombroso, Enrico Ferri (1856-1929) believed that some criminals bore physical "stigmata" (39) of their criminality.
Enrico Ferri & Robert Ferrari, The Present Movement in Criminal Anthropology Apropos of a Biological Investigation in the English Prisons, 5 J.
40) MAURICE PARMELEE, THE PRINCIPLES OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY AND THEIR RELATION TO CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 79 (1912) (quoting ENRICO FERRI, LA SOCIOLOGIE CRIMINELLE 96 (1893)).