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coli heat-stable enterotoxin; LEE, locus of enterocyte effacement.
By characterizing gene expression from 13,102 single cells, Yan and colleagues were able to show that Lgr5- control cells represented differentiated cell types of the small intestinal lineages, including Paneth, goblet, enteroendocrine, enterocyte, pre-enterocyte, and tuft cells.
6 When the integrity of the enterocyte membrane is compromised, I-FABP are rapidly released into the circulation.
Effect of sage extract on alkaline phosphatase, enterocyte proliferative activity and growth performance in chickens.
Our recent study indicated that weaning disrupted the physiologic equilibrium of oxidant and antioxidant and led to oxidative stress, eventually inducing enterocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the small intestine of postweaning piglets [6, 7].
Haem iron and non-haem iron are absorbed into the enterocyte non-competitively.
These models enable the determination of potential structural changes to the peptides that could maximize the ability to cross the enterocyte along with the permeation-enhancing system when formulated.
Such alterations characteristically lead to increased shedding of brush border membranes, accelerated cell-loss and shortened, sparse and irregular enterocyte microvilli, thus disrupting digestion and absorption.
Another study showed that the enterocyte regulatory system was altered in presence of LPS through the inhibition of proton pump under extracellular acidotic conditions, which resulted in a cytoplasmic acidification and alteration in cellular function 12.
But cryptosporidium seems to induce a rearrangement of the host enterocyte cytoskeleton, reducing the membrane expression of nutrient transporters and causing impaired absorption and osmotic diarrhea.