Therefore, it can regulate the way iron is transported from enterocytes
to the plasma in the small intestine.
The most widely used human intestinal cell culture model is the Caco-2 cell line that, although obtained from a colon adenocarcinoma, forms a monolayer of well differentiated polarized cells, coupled by functional tight junctions, which express several metabolic activities of small intestinal normal absorptive enterocytes
(Sambuy et al., 2005).
Lying immediately below their surface, epithelial coverings are healthy enterocytes
expressing the specific brush border enzymes alkaline phosphatase and esterase (17).
Biopsy was taken from the site and histopathological examination showed evidence of crypt hyperplasia, marked villous atrophy along with presence of >30 intraepithelial lymphocytes/100 enterocytes
, consistent with celiac disease stage IIIC as per Modified Marsh Classification (Figure 2).
The gut microbiota is well known to support tight junction integrity between enterocytes
. Although few clinical trials have directly investigated the influence of probiotic supplementation on epithelial barrier function in humans, evidence suggests lactobacilli are efficacious in this respect.
Epithelial cells differentiate and form Enterocytes
at about 9 weeks.
SIBO causes malabsorption across the intestinal microvillus membrane as a result of damage to enterocytes
, as well as impaired digestion in the intestinal lumen.
The hephaestin, a transmembrane copper-containing ferroxidase, having 50% homology to ceruloplasmin, works as a facilitator for iron export from enterocytes
into blood circulation.
The slides were examined by consultant histopathologist and presence or absence of histological features consistent with CD, including, villous architecture, villous height: crypt length ratio, crypt hyperplasia, surface enterocytes
, increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and other histological findings like parasites, granuloma, dysplasia or evidence of malignancy were noted.
Two iron transport proteins, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN), are expressed in duodenal enterocytes