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Similar reductions occurred in association with obesity, DM, MS, and NAFLD, promoting alterations in the intestinal barrier and enterocytes leading to increased intestinal permeability.
Decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in intestine or enterocytes with oxidized lipids have been found using various models (Ringseis et al.
It is a trans membrane copper-dependent peroxidase responsible for transporting dietary iron from intestinal enterocytes into the circulatory system (Chen, 2006)".
These criteria comprised villus fusion and stunting (atrophy), reduction in goblet cell number, epithelial denudation and erosion, activation of glandular epithelium, activation of nuclei of enterocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema and hemorrhage in lamina propria, and the number of apoptotic bodies.
While studying the small intestine (jejunum), the thickness of the whole intestinal wall, mucous and muscular membranes, the height and width of the villi, the depth and width of the crypts, the area of the enterocytes and their nuclei villi and crypts, the number and area of goblet cells were determined.
Reports have also shown that lectins bind to complementary carbohydrates present on the surface of enterocytes, for example in glycolipids and glycoproteins of the brush border membrane and as a result of enterocyte atrophy, the nutrient absorption surface area becomes reduced and the transport of nutrients through the epithelium gets impeded, which leads to inhibited growth of animals.
6) The drug also affects TNF-alpha molecules that are attached to target cells such as the intestinal enterocytes.
Evidence suggests that the pathophysiologic basis of excess iron absorption is due to high levels of expression of divalent metal transporter-1 that transports iron into enterocytes in the proximal intestine, and ferroportin that exports iron to the circulation.
All the stained slides were analyzed for apoptotic index (AI) (number of positive cells present among 100 enterocytes examined), and at least 2000 duodenal enterocytes were assessed before recording the AI and stain intensity separately.
Villous ischaemia-reperfusion injury in haemodynamic instability and hypotension leads to epithelial morphological disruption, apoptotic and necrotic cell loss, blunted villous height, and shedding of enterocytes into the gut lumen.
With regard to fundamental principles , the desirable probiotic characteristics laid out by Mattila-Sandholm and Salminen in 1998 still hold true today--gastric acid and bile salt stability, adherence to enterocytes, antagonism against potentially pathogenic organisms and most importantly evidence of efficacy (Mattila-Sandholm and Salminen 1998).