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an infectious disease of animals caused by various types of toxin-forming bacteria of the genus Clostridium that reproduce intensively in the gastrointestinal tract.

Enterotoxemia occurs in many countries. In the USSR the disease has been found mainly in sheep, especially in Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus; it occurs less commonly in calves and young hogs. The sources of the causative agent are animals suffering from the disease or those that have recovered from it. The reservoir of the causative agent is soil, in which Clostridium spores may be preserved for a long time. Most species of agricultural animals are susceptible to the causative agent of the disease.

Infection occurs through feed or water. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract promote the development of the infectious process. The disease may be ultra-acute, acute, or chronic. In ultra-acute cases the animal dies suddenly or a few hours after sudden disruption of motor coordination and convulsions. Acute cases are marked by loss of appetite and disturbances of the nervous system and digestion (excessive salivation, diarrhea). Chronic cases are also characterized by anemia and jaundice of the mucosa. The mortality rate for the ultra-acute variety of the disease is 95 percent or, sometimes, 100 percent.

Treatment includes the injection of hyperimmune serum and the use of antibiotics. To prevent the spread of the disease, all animals on an infected farm should be inoculated with polyvalent anticlostridium toxoid; the fetuses of pregnant females should be immunized one or two months before birth.


References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical signs treatment and postmortem lesions in dairy goats with enterotoxemia: 13 cases (1979-1982).
sporogenes Gas gangrene in humans and animals; Subterminal enterotoxemia in rabbits Cl.
If the animal survives the initial episode of grain overload, secondary effects include, but are not limited to, enterotoxemia, polioencephalomalacia, liver abscesses, and chronic laminitis (Merck Veterinary Manual 2008).
IgG serum concentrations in alpacas neonates killed by enterotoxemia
For the other infectious diseases, malignant edema was recorded - 2 cases, salmonellosis - 3 cases, pasteurellosis (cattle) - 13 cases, emphysematous carbuncle (EMCAR) - 7 cases, American bee feces - 1 case, enterotoxemia of sheep - 43 cases.
Clinicopathologic features of experimental Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in cattle.
Some displaced animals are also suffering from infectious diseases like Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Peste des petit ruminants (PPR), Enterotoxemia,
Most of animals were vaccinated for foot and mouth disease and enterotoxemia but no other vaccine was in practice.
The falcons died between 1 and 2 days after presentation, and clostridial enterotoxemia was confirmed by isolation of pure colonies of Clostridium perfringens from the intestinal lesions and from ELISA detection of alpha toxin in fecal samples.
Se les aplico el toxoide de Clostridium perfringens tipo D para prevenir la enterotoxemia (dosis unica de 2,5 mL) y se adaptaron dentro de las jaulas metabolicas para facilitar el manejo y la toma de muestras.
La enterotoxemia, la diarrea neonatal, los procesos respiratorios agudos y las septicemias son las enfermedades infecciosas mas frecuentes que causan mayor mortalidad en las crias de CSA.
Aos 45 dias de idade receberam vacina contra carbunculo, gangrena gasosa e enterotoxemia. Na primeira semana de vida, as ovelhas e as cordeiras ficaram alojadas nas instalacoes, na segunda e terceira semana, somente as ovelhas foram soltas nos piquetes por 4h e da quarta semana ate o desmame, somente as ovelhas foram soltas nos piquetes por 8h.