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an infectious disease of animals caused by various types of toxin-forming bacteria of the genus Clostridium that reproduce intensively in the gastrointestinal tract.

Enterotoxemia occurs in many countries. In the USSR the disease has been found mainly in sheep, especially in Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus; it occurs less commonly in calves and young hogs. The sources of the causative agent are animals suffering from the disease or those that have recovered from it. The reservoir of the causative agent is soil, in which Clostridium spores may be preserved for a long time. Most species of agricultural animals are susceptible to the causative agent of the disease.

Infection occurs through feed or water. Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract promote the development of the infectious process. The disease may be ultra-acute, acute, or chronic. In ultra-acute cases the animal dies suddenly or a few hours after sudden disruption of motor coordination and convulsions. Acute cases are marked by loss of appetite and disturbances of the nervous system and digestion (excessive salivation, diarrhea). Chronic cases are also characterized by anemia and jaundice of the mucosa. The mortality rate for the ultra-acute variety of the disease is 95 percent or, sometimes, 100 percent.

Treatment includes the injection of hyperimmune serum and the use of antibiotics. To prevent the spread of the disease, all animals on an infected farm should be inoculated with polyvalent anticlostridium toxoid; the fetuses of pregnant females should be immunized one or two months before birth.


References in periodicals archive ?
perfringens type A, producing alpha toxin, is a common isolate from cases of caprine enterotoxemia (Daube et al.
It has long been recognized that ruminants switching from a natural diet of browse (a cellulose-based diet) to one of more readily digestible carbohydrates (a starch-based diet), such as corn and wheat, are predisposed to developing conditions such as enterotoxemia, polioencephalomalacia, acute rumenitis, liver abscesses, laminitis, and to sudden death.
Table 2 Candidate BW Agents for Weaponization Disease Causative Agent Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Plague Yersinia pestis Tularemia Francisella tularensis Cholera Vibrio cholerae Venezuelan equine encephalitis VEE virus Q fever Coxiella burnetti Botulism Clostridium botulinum toxin Staphylococcal enterotoxemia Staphylococcus enterotoxin type B Multiple organ toxicity Trichothecene mycotoxin Disease Incubation Time Fatalities (Days) (Percent) Anthrax one to five 80 Plague one to five 90 Tularemia 10 to 14 five to 20 Cholera two to five 25 to 50 Venezuelan equine encephalitis two to five < one Q fever 12 to 21 < one Botulism three 30 Staphylococcal enterotoxemia one to six < one Multiple organ toxicity Dose Dependent Source: The Biological and Chemical Warfare Threat (Washington, D.
Biological Agents Incubation time Fatalities (days) (percent) Disease Anthrax 1 to 5 80 Plague 1 to 5 90 Tularemia 10 to 14 5 to 20 Cholera 2 to 5 25 to 50 Venezuelan equine encephalitis 2 to 5 <1 Q fever 12 to 21 <1 Botulism 3 30 Staphylococcal enterotoxemia 1 to 6 <1 (food poisoning) Multiple organ toxicity Dose dependent SOURCE: Department of Defense.
Three weeks before the weaning process begins, vaccinate for the second time with enterotoxemia type D.
The falcons died between 1 and 2 days after presentation, and clostridial enterotoxemia was confirmed by isolation of pure colonies of Clostridium perfringens from the intestinal lesions and from ELISA detection of alpha toxin in fecal samples.