Enver Pasha


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Enver Pasha

(ĕnvĕr` päshä`), 1881–1922, Turkish general and political leader. He took a prominent part in the Young Turk revolution of 1908, which reestablished the liberal constitution of 1876. By a coup in 1913, Enver Pasha became the virtual dictator. He fought in the Turko-Italian War (1911–12) in LibyaLibya
, republic (2005 est. pop. 5,766,000), 679,358 sq mi (1,759,540 sq km), N Africa. It borders on Algeria in the west, on Tunisia in the northwest, on the Mediterranean Sea in the north, on Egypt in the east, on Sudan in the southeast, and on Chad and Niger in the south.
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 and in the Balkan WarsBalkan Wars,
1912–13, two short wars, fought for the possession of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. The outbreak of the Italo-Turkish War for the possession of Tripoli (1911) encouraged the Balkan states to increase their territory at Turkish expense.
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 (1912–13). Dissatisfied with the loss of Turkish territory in the Balkan Wars, he helped bring Turkey into World War I as a German ally. When Turkey signed an armistice, he fled to Berlin. Enver Pasha was killed while leading an anti-Soviet expedition in Bukhara during the BasmachiBasmachi
, revolt against Communist rule in Central Asia by Muslims and bandits, 1917–30. The Basmachi fought a guerrilla war against the Red Army, leading uprisings in the Fergana and Pamir regions.
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 revolt; his remains were returned from Tajikistan to his homeland in 1996.

Enver Pasha

 

Born Nov. 22, 1881, in Istanbul; died Aug. 4, 1922, near Bal’dzhuan. Turkish military and political figure. Participant in the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 and a leader of the Young Turks’ party, the Committee of Union and Progress.

Enver graduated from the Academy of the General Staff in Istanbul in 1903. In January 1913 he carried out a coup d’etat that brought down the government of the Liberal Union, a feudalcompradorist party, and formed an unofficial triumvirate with Talaat Pasha and Jemal Pasha that became the governing power in Turkey. Enver, one of the principal figures dedicated to the ideology of Pan-Turkism and Pan-Islam, initiated a military alliance with Germany and led Turkey into World War I. During the war he held the supreme military post of deputy commander in chief; the sultan was formally the commander in chief.

Enver and Talaat were the two men most responsible for the mass slaughter of the Armenian people. In September 1918, on Enver’s orders, Turkish forces intervened in the Caucasus in violation of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) and captured Baku. After Turkey signed the Moudhros Armistice of 1918, Enver fled to Germany and later to Soviet Russia. After failing to reach Anatolia and head the struggle there against Ataturk, he took part in late 1921 in an anti-Soviet Basmachi revolt in Middle Asia. Enver was killed in a battle with Red Army units.

Enver Pasha

1881--1922, Turkish soldier and leader of the Young Turks: minister of war (1914--18)
References in periodicals archive ?
Mustafa Kemal, much like the Unionist triumvirate of Enver Pasha, Talat Pasha, and Cemal Pasha, believed in a form of government whereby the country would consist of "Turks.
After World War I began, the Germans indeed requested that Enver Pasha proclaim jihad.
Led by Enver Pasha, and several other army officers.
Despite such telling points, her interpretations are often reductive: however conservative, Werfel was not a volkisch thinker (a term she uses too loosely), and his Enver Pasha by no means 'embodies stereotypical Oriental despotism' but is terrifying precisely because of his ultra-modern amorality.
Enver Pasha is possibly the most enigmatic and romantic figure the Muslim world has produced in the 20th century.
Enver Pasha and his circle have been accused of having been "corrupted by German gold, blinded by German promises, pressured by German diplomats," and "of having hijacked Ottoman policy" in the waning days of the empire, bringing about its demise.
He urged the German embassy in Constantinople to take measures, in association with the Turkish war minister Enver Pasha, "for the energetic combatting of English influence in Arabia.
The exhibition opens with the paintings by Wilhelm Viktor Krausz who was sent to the frontlines of ystanbul and Ecanakkale as a war artist and painted portraits of many prominent figures including Sultan Mehmed ReE-ad, Sadrazam Said Halim Pasha, E[currency]eyhE-lislam Hayri Efendi, Minister of War Enver Pasha, Interior Minister Talat Pasha and most importantly the first known portrait of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.
It was the repetition of the policies of Enver Pasha.
Some of them are already well known such as those regarding Ataturk and Enver Pasha.
This kinship is key to understanding the book's historic significance: Cemal Pasha was a member of the triumvirate, whose other parts were Talat and Enver Pasha, responsible for the Great Armenian Tragedy, which started with a mass deportation of Ottoman Armenians from their homelands and ended with their annihilation.
Enver Pasha never served as an irregular soldier in counterinsurgency operations in Macedonia.