Enver Pasha


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Enver Pasha

(ĕnvĕr` päshä`), 1881–1922, Turkish general and political leader. He took a prominent part in the Young Turk revolution of 1908, which reestablished the liberal constitution of 1876. By a coup in 1913, Enver Pasha became the virtual dictator. He fought in the Turko-Italian War (1911–12) in LibyaLibya
, republic (2015 est. pop. 6,235,000), 679,358 sq mi (1,759,540 sq km), N Africa. It borders on Algeria in the west, on Tunisia in the northwest, on the Mediterranean Sea in the north, on Egypt in the east, on Sudan in the southeast, and on Chad and Niger in the south.
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 and in the Balkan WarsBalkan Wars,
1912–13, two short wars, fought for the possession of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. The outbreak of the Italo-Turkish War for the possession of Tripoli (1911) encouraged the Balkan states to increase their territory at Turkish expense.
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 (1912–13). Dissatisfied with the loss of Turkish territory in the Balkan Wars, he helped bring Turkey into World War I as a German ally. When Turkey signed an armistice, he fled to Berlin. Enver Pasha was killed while leading an anti-Soviet expedition in Bukhara during the BasmachiBasmachi
, revolt against Communist rule in Central Asia by Muslims and bandits, 1917–30. The Basmachi fought a guerrilla war against the Red Army, leading uprisings in the Fergana and Pamir regions.
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 revolt; his remains were returned from Tajikistan to his homeland in 1996.

Enver Pasha

 

Born Nov. 22, 1881, in Istanbul; died Aug. 4, 1922, near Bal’dzhuan. Turkish military and political figure. Participant in the Young Turk Revolution of 1908 and a leader of the Young Turks’ party, the Committee of Union and Progress.

Enver graduated from the Academy of the General Staff in Istanbul in 1903. In January 1913 he carried out a coup d’etat that brought down the government of the Liberal Union, a feudalcompradorist party, and formed an unofficial triumvirate with Talaat Pasha and Jemal Pasha that became the governing power in Turkey. Enver, one of the principal figures dedicated to the ideology of Pan-Turkism and Pan-Islam, initiated a military alliance with Germany and led Turkey into World War I. During the war he held the supreme military post of deputy commander in chief; the sultan was formally the commander in chief.

Enver and Talaat were the two men most responsible for the mass slaughter of the Armenian people. In September 1918, on Enver’s orders, Turkish forces intervened in the Caucasus in violation of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) and captured Baku. After Turkey signed the Moudhros Armistice of 1918, Enver fled to Germany and later to Soviet Russia. After failing to reach Anatolia and head the struggle there against Ataturk, he took part in late 1921 in an anti-Soviet Basmachi revolt in Middle Asia. Enver was killed in a battle with Red Army units.

Enver Pasha

1881--1922, Turkish soldier and leader of the Young Turks: minister of war (1914--18)
References in periodicals archive ?
Mustafa Kemal, much like the Unionist triumvirate of Enver Pasha, Talat Pasha, and Cemal Pasha, believed in a form of government whereby the country would consist of "Turks." Unlike his predecessors, however, the Republic's mastermind had access to necessary means to make his destructive dream come true.
However," the text continues, "our Egyptian brethren have helped us to a certain degree financially and morally in the last two wars, and in spite of their unbelieving rulers, forwarded their collections on our behalf to the Capital of the Caliphate." This indicates an Ottoman author in Enver Pasha's circle such as Shawish.
Enver Pasha (b.1881-d.1922)--Pasha (see Pasha below) who died fighting in the Caucasus, he was part of the Committee of Union and Progress Party during the year of constitutional monarchy in Turkey (1876) and was also a leader of the Young Turk movement.
Despite such telling points, her interpretations are often reductive: however conservative, Werfel was not a volkisch thinker (a term she uses too loosely), and his Enver Pasha by no means 'embodies stereotypical Oriental despotism' but is terrifying precisely because of his ultra-modern amorality.
Enver Pasha is possibly the most enigmatic and romantic figure the Muslim world has produced in the 20th century.
Enver Pasha's irrational support of the German and Austro-Hungarian Central Powers led the Ottoman Empire into war.
Most historians have fingered Enver Pasha, Minister of War of the Committee of Union and Progress hereafter CUP), for the decision.
In March 1915 as difficulties mounted, Arthur Zimmermann, the Foreign Ministry's undersecretary of state, expressed his concern about the "attitude of the Great Sharif of Mecca." He urged the German embassy in Constantinople to take measures, in association with the Turkish war minister Enver Pasha, "for the energetic combatting of English influence in Arabia." As a part of Berlin's growing awareness of the problem, the Foreign Ministry decided not only to reorganize and intensify German propaganda in the Ottoman Empire, but also to establish a method by which such propaganda could be spread more effectively throughout the Islamic world.(12)
The exhibition opens with the paintings by Wilhelm Viktor Krausz who was sent to the frontlines of ystanbul and Ecanakkale as a war artist and painted portraits of many prominent figures including Sultan Mehmed ReE-ad, Sadrazam Said Halim Pasha, E[currency]eyhE-lislam Hayri Efendi, Minister of War Enver Pasha, Interior Minister Talat Pasha and most importantly the first known portrait of Mustafa Kemal Pasha.
Part IV, The Twentieth Century, is composed of "In Pursuit of Elusive Glory: Enver Pasha's Role in the Pan-Islamic and Basmachi Movements," by Suhnaz Yilmaz, "Marshal Fevzi Cakmak's Family and Education," by Nilufer Hatemi, "Our Women Treasures: Early Republican Turkish Women and Their Public Identity," by Ipek K.
It was the repetition of the policies of Enver Pasha. Not only the global powers that sponsored us, but also the regional powers were bothered by this.
Some of them are already well known such as those regarding Ataturk and Enver Pasha. Others regarding the notorious supposed World War II Nazi spy "Cicero" show how this agent might really have been a double agent working for Turkey.