an enzyme-containing drug that influences metabolism.
Enzyme preparations are obtained from plants, microorganisms and products of animal origin. Gastric juice, pepsin, and pancreatin are used to treat gastrointestinal diseases involving dysfunction of the digestive glands. Proteolytic enzyme preparations obtained from bovine pancreas, for example, chymotrypsin, are widely used in medical practice; they split the peptide bonds in proteins and peptides. When used locally, trypsin destroys necrotic tissue and fibrinous masses and liquefies viscous secretions, exudates, and blood clots. Intramuscular injections of trypsin have an anti-inflammatory effect. Trypsin preparations are inhaled or are injected intramuscularly to eliminate secretions and exudates in bronchitis and bronchiectasis and to treat thrombophlebitis, osteomyelitis, maxillary sinusitis, and iridocyclitis. Trypsin preparations are also applied locally to burns, decubitus ulcers, and purulent wounds.
The enzyme deoxyribonuclease liquefies pus and inhibits the development of herpesvirus and adenovirus; it is consequently used to treat herpetic and adenoviral eye infections, abscesses of the lungs, and lesions of the upper respiratory tract. Preparations containing the enzyme hyaluronidase increase tissue permeability and facilitate the flow of fluids in interstitial areas; they are used in the treatment of joint contractures, scars remaining after burns and surgery, and hematomas. Thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, and myocardial infarction are treated with fibrinolysin, which dissolves newly formed thrombi. Penicillinase obtained from a Bacillus cereus culture inactivates penicillin drugs and is used to control allergic reactions caused by these drugs.
Enzyme inhibitors are also used in medical practice. These include anticholinesterase agents that inhibit cholinesterase, and certain antidepressants that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as Diacarb are used as diuretics, and such inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes as Trasylol are used to treat acute pancreatitis.
REFERENCESKaplanskii, S. Ia. “Primenenie fermentnykh preparatov v terapii razlichnykh zabolevanii.” In Aktual’nye voprosy sovremennoi biokhimii, vol. 2. Moscow, 1962.
Mashkovskii, M. D. Lekarstvennye sredstva, 7th ed., part 2. Moscow, 1972.
V. V. CHURIUKANOV