Eosinophil

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eosinophil

[‚ē·ə′sin·ə‚fil]
(histology)
A granular leukocyte having cytoplasmic granules that stain with acid dyes and a nucleus with two lobes connected by a thin thread of chromatin.

Eosinophil

 

a cell of vertebrates, including man, whose cytoplasm contains rounded granular structures that are stained by acid dyes, in particular by eosin. The eosinophils of the blood originate and mature in the bone marrow. They comprise 3–4 percent of leukocytes in the peripheral blood of a healthy human being. This level is subject to a daily rhythm and is regulated by the system which includes the pituitary body and the adrenal cortex.

In allergic reactions, eosinophils release the inhibitor histamine, which belongs to the prostaglandins E1 and E2. They also serve as phagocytes.

An increase in the percentage of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or an increase in their absolute number is called eosinophilia. As a rule, this condition is reactive in character, regardless of the degree of its severity. The possibility of developing eosinophilic leukemia is still a matter of dispute. Eosinophilia is accompanied by various reactions and diseases, predominantly allergic, including those related to the breaking down of the body’s resistance by parasites or medicinal and food allergens. Aggregations of eosinophils observed in the tissues, as, for example, in the mucosa of the bronchi (and sputum) in bronchial asthma, are called tissue eosinophilia. Eosinophilic infiltrates, large aggregations of eosinophils in the tissues, are occasionally observed in various organs, predominantly the lungs. They may run their course as short-term reactions or result in such severe illnesses as pneumonia, myocarditis, vasculitis, and meningoencephalitis. A number of other diseases are also accompanied by a high eosinophilia. In some cases it is impossible to establish the nature of the disease that is accompanied by a high eosinophilia. The condition may be observed even in people who are otherwise healthy.

Hürtle cells, one of the types of cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary body, are also called eosinophils.

L. D. GRINSHPUN

References in periodicals archive ?
More importantly, the eosinophil count in the lung tissues of the nanoviricide treated animals was also significantly lower than untreated animals.
In the high eosinophils patient group: Mean improvements from baseline in FEV1 (and mean percent change in FEV1) at 12 weeks, the primary (and a secondary) endpoint of the study were: 390ml (26 percent) dupilumab 300 mg every other week (Q2W); 430 ml (26 percent) dupilumab 200 mg Q2W; 180 ml (10 percent) placebo.
In this article, we describe our study of the utility of another method of diagnosing allergic rhinitis: the nasal smear examination for eosinophils.
All patients in studies MEA115588 (MENSA) and MEA115575 (SIRIUS) had peripheral blood eosinophil levels greater than or equal to 150 cells/?
Evidence shows that eosinophils play an active role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
2,5,8) IL-4 is secreted by Th2 cells, eosinophils, basophils, natural killer cells, and mast cells.
8220;There is no better time than National Eosinophil Awareness Week for patients, caregivers, organizations, and health care providers to work together in a united effort to raise awareness about what these diseases are and what it is like to live with them.
When turning the ORMDL3 gene off, researchers found lower levels of integrins expressed on the surface of eosinophils, meaning a decreased ability of eosinophils to migrate and cause inflammation in the airways.
The patient's symptoms resolved within 10 days following a single dose of 10 mg/kg; at 1 month, her eosinophil count was 0.
The patient presented in the Emergency Department four hours later and similar full blood count results were obtained, where eosinophils accounted for 46% of the total white cell count.
Eosinophils are regulated by the cytokine interleukin (IL)-5 and survive in tissue for approximately 2-14 days.