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The layer of epithelial cells lining the cavities of the brain and spinal cord. Also known as ependymal layer.



cells in the brain of animals and man that perform demarcating, supportive, and secretory functions in the central nervous system; a form of neuroglia.

The ependyma separates from cells of the neural tube in early embryogenesis. Ependymal cells (ependymocytes) line the walls of the spinal canal and ventricles of the brain. They have elongated bodies with cilia at the free end. The cilia, which are lost in many parts of the brain after the individual is born, help the cerebrospinal fluid to circulate by their beating movements. A long, branched process extends from the opposite end of the ependymocyte into the brain. The ependyma of the walls of the third ventricle may promote the exchange of biologically active substances between neurons of the adjacent regions of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood vessels of the hypophyseoportal system.

References in periodicals archive ?
Currently, when neural stem cells are harvested for growth in culture, however, the ependymal cells are not removed along with them.
Later it was found that not only embryonic CNS but also adult CNS possess the ability to generate neurospheres forming cells in vitro, including neural epithelial progenitor (NEP) cells, radial glial cells, SVZ cells, and ependymal cells, that clonigenically generate neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in vivo (16).
Subependymomas: clinicopathologic study of 14 tumors, including comparative MIB-1 immunohistochemical analysis with other ependymal neoplasms.
Identifying the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes or true ependymal rosettes is instrumental in the diagnosis.
These tumors arise from the ependymal cells of the central canal; hence, they are located centrally, as opposed to the eccentric location of astrocytomas (Table 2).
The research group has identified a type of stem cell, called an ependymal cell, in the spinal cord.
Electron microscopic study of the progeny of ependymal stem cells in the normal and injured spinal cord.
As a pore-forming toxin, pneumolysin is cytotoxic to a variety of mammalian cells, including respiratory and ependymal epithelium, as well as neuronal cells.
6) Cysts can degenerate in the ventricular system causing an ependymal reaction identifiable on contrast-enhanced MRI and can lead to permanent neurological complications.
16) There is also one report, to our knowledge, of a fourth ventricle neurocytoma with both lipomatous and ependymal differentiation.
It is postulated that this tumor originates from the ependymal cells of lamina terminalis (1).