Citizen are males, born of Athenian parents, who did two years of military service ("ephebeia
Polinskaya (2003, 14n14) therefore distinguishes a broader notion of the ephebe from its association with the ephebeia institutionalized by Lycurgus in the second half of the fourth century BCE, defining ephebes in this sense "as an age-group, from the onset of puberty to twenty years of age when young men gained full access to citizenship rights." This more open understanding of ephebic youth has the advantage of remaining specifically definable without relying upon the conflation of theoretical metaphor--"the ephebe is like a marginal outlier"--with historical practice--"the ephebe is a lone hunter cast out into liminal space during the initiatory period" (Polinskaya 2003, 85-86, 91-93).
(17) Polinskaya (2003) raises important questions about Vidal-Naquet's notion of liminal space in the Greek ephebeia, suggesting that the ephebe is a metaphorical outlier and observing that border areas in historical Attica (the region in which Athens was located) were not understood as liminal spaces.
Christ 2001:416-418), and the introduction of a more centralised and formal type of training, such as the Athenian ephebeia
, aimed at providing specific training in [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (see Arist.
The spread of ephebic institutions throughout the Hellenistic world has puzzled scholars for a long time, since the ephebeia
seems to have instilled in the young men the ideal of the traditional hoplite citizen, while the actual fighting was in the hands of mercenaries and other professional soldiers.
What about the Boule or the Ephebeia
(or the Gardens of Adonis, for example)?
The ephebeia, on the other hand, is well represented both by inscriptions listing ephebes and by the numerous representations of youths in Athenian iconography.
Although the institution of ephebeia in Athens is restricted to male youths, the term [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] refers to the celebration upon reaching adolescence, and is related to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], as in hair of pubes, including [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].
Delia is, however, almost certainly correct to argue that Alexandrian citizenship had only the formal requirement of registration in a deme and tribe,(10) though it may still have been expected that an Alexandrian would perform the ephebeia and so membership of the gymnasium could be taken as circumstantial evidence for citizenship.
Delia, Alexandrian Citizenship during the Roman Principate (Atlanta, 1991), 71 is probably right to point out that performing the ephebeia in Alexandria was not a necessary qualification for becoming an Alexandrian citizen.
It emerges that the gymnasium of Beroia was devoted solely to athletic and military exercises and not also to cultural activities, as was the case with the contemporary phase of the Athenian ephebeia
. Since this is also true of other gymnasia of the Greek world, it is proper to use these inscriptions for commentary on the Beroia law.