Ephesus

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Ephesus

(ĕf`əsəs), ancient Greek city of Asia Minor, near the mouth of the Caÿster River (modern Küçük Menderes), in what is today W Turkey, S of Smyrna (now Izmir). One of the greatest of the Ionian cities, it became the leading seaport of the region. Its wealth was proverbial. The Greek city was near an old center of worship of a native nature goddess, who was equated with the Greek ArtemisArtemis
, in Greek religion and mythology, Olympian goddess, daughter of Zeus and Leto and twin sister of Apollo. Artemis' early worship, especially at Ephesus, identified her as an earth goddess, similar to Astarte.
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, and c.550 B.C. a large temple was built. To this Croesus, who captured the city, contributed. From Lydian control Ephesus passed to the Persian Empire. The temple was burned down in the 4th cent. B.C., but rebuilding was begun before Alexander the Great took Ephesus in 334. The city continued to thrive during the wars of his successors, and after it passed (133) to the Romans it kept its hegemony and was the leading city of the province of Asia. The great temple of Artemis, or Artemision, called by the Romans the temple of Diana, was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the WorldSeven Wonders of the World,
in ancient classifications, were the Great Pyramid of Khufu (see pyramid) or all the pyramids with or without the sphinx; the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, with or without the walls; the mausoleum at Halicarnassus; the Artemision at Ephesus; the
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. From c.100 B.C. to c.A.D. 100 Ephesus was the world capital of the slave trade. The city was sacked by the Goths in A.D. 262, and the temple was destroyed. The seat of a church council in 431, Ephesus was abandoned after the harbor silted up. Excavations (1869–74) of the ruins of the temple brought to light many artifacts. Later excavations uncovered important Roman and Byzantine remains.

Ephesus

 

an ancient city in Caria, on the western coast of Asia Minor. Ephesus was founded in the 12th century B.C. by Greeks on the site of a Carian settlement. The city’s advantageous location promoted its rapid growth as a commercial and religious center; its Temple of Artemis was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

In 560 B.C., Ephesus was conquered by Lydia, and in 546 B.C., by Persia. After the Greco-Persian Wars (500–449 B.C.), when it was freed from Persian rule, the city joined the Delian League, and during the Peloponnesian War (431–404 B.C.) it sided with Sparta. After 386 B.C., Ephesus was again conquered by Persia, and in 334 B.C., by Alexander the Great. In the third century B.C. it was under the rule of the Seleucids. It came under the power of Pergamum in 190 B.C. and of Rome in 133 B.C. In the late first century B.C., Ephesus became the capital of the Roman province of Asia. In A.D. 263 it was sacked by the Goths, who destroyed the Temple of Artemis, which had been rebuilt after it was burned down by Herostratus in 356 B.C. In A.D. 358 and 365, Ephesus was damaged by earthquakes, but it was rebuilt both times. In the Middle Ages the city gradually lost its importance because of the shallowing of its harbor.

Thorough excavations have been conducted since the late 19th century by the Austrian Archaeological Institute. Structures that have survived from ancient Ephesus include ruins of various Roman buildings, the agora, the theater, the Library of Celsus, the temples of Serapion and Hadrian, and the odeum (first-second centuries). Also of interest are the early Christian burial-ground complex known as the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus and the Byzantine Hagia Maria Basilica (second-third centuries). Northeast of Ephesus, in Selçuk, are remains of the Temple of Artemis (eighth, seventh, mid-sixth centuries B.C.), and in Belevi there is a mausoleum of the third century B.C. The Museum of Ephesus is located in Selçuk.

REFERENCES

Forschungen in Ephesos, vols. 1–5. Vienna, 1906–53.
Miltner, F. Ephesos. Vienna, 1958.
Alzinger, W. Die Stadt dessiebenten Weltwunders. Vienna, 1962.

Ephesus

(in ancient Greece) a major trading city on the W coast of Asia Minor: famous for its temple of Artemis (Diana); sacked by the Goths (262 ad)
References in periodicals archive ?
150-200 CE) has its apostle rail against the crowds at Ephesos in a competition of gods: 'You all say that you have Artemis as your goddess.
Lysimachos forced the inhabitants of Ephesos to move to a new city, Arsinoeia, which was physically separated from the Artemision.
Korydon is a name that also occurs in Theokritos; Habrokomes is a name she borrows from another ancient novel, An Ephesian tale by Xenophon of Ephesos (Reardon 1989:128ff.
In addition, a doorpost was found in the same place; this is similar to those in the probable prytaneion at Ephesos, for which see Miller 1978, pl.
The men who were found in the Ephesos graveyard were trained like the top athletes of today.
These three poets, Yeshua (Jesus) of the Gospels, Yohanan (John) the Evangelist, and John of the Apocalypse (it could be John of Revelation or John of Ephesos or John of Patmos) are the poetic constellations of the New Covenant--a book unjustly in shadow to the poetic grandeur of the Hebrew Bible.
111-64), and the implicit `presence' of the Emperor at Ephesos (via the Imperial cult) and in the Passion narrative of the Fourth Gospel at the trial of Jesus (pp.
Laments, bewailing the misfortunes of the hero and heroine, are a regular part of the Greek romance, but this one develops in an unusual way, in comparison with a more standard lament (such as Xenophon of Ephesos 2.
Artemis von Ephesos und verwandte Kultstatuen aus Anatolien und Syrien, Leiden: Brill.
Among the topics are Carian names and Crete, Lykophron's Alexandra and the Cypriote name Praxandros, a catalogue of officials of an association in a newly discovered inscription from Ptolemais in Cyrenaica, progress and problems revising Athenian Propertied Families, the onomastic evidence for Sparta's friends at Ephesos, onomastics and the administration of Italia, Greek personal names in Latin Dalmatia, new lead plaques with Greek inscriptions from East Crimea, an onomastic survey of the indigenous population of northwestern Asia Minor, an unnoticed Macedonian name from Dura Europos, and the personal name Kalandion as evidence for the diffusion of the Roman calendar in the Greco-Roman east.
One may wonder why a Lydian ruler would have a monument inscribed in Phrygian, but the Greek inscription on a column base from Ephesos that may record Croesus's dedication there offers a parallel.