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Inflammation of the epididymis.



inflammation of the epididymis. The disease may be specific (in tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, brucellosis) or nonspecific (caused by staphylococci, streptococci, or other infectious agents).

Acute epididymitis has a sudden onset. There is pain in the scrotum; the pain often extends into the inguinal and iliac regions. The scrotum swells and reddens, and there is enlargement and induration of the epididymis. There is pain in the epididymis, and the body temperature rises.

In chronic epididymitis the scrotum is unchanged, and the epididymis becomes only moderately enlarged and indurated. There is only slight pain in the epididymis. In tuberculous epididymitis the epididymis usually adheres to the scrotum, and formation of fistulas is characteristic.

Treatment for acute epididymitis entails confinement to bed and the use of cold compresses on the scrotum, a suspensory, and antibiotics. Chronic epididymitis is treated by antibacterial preparations and physical therapy. Surgical removal of the epididymis (epididymectomy) is required in tuberculous epididymitis. Bilateral disease of the epididymis may result in infertility.

Figure 1 Optical diagram of a simple epidiascope in two modes of operation [for the sake of simplicity, only one light source—an incandescent lamp (2) —is shown]: (a) episcopic projection, (b) diascopic projection. In the episcopic-projection mode, beams from the light source (2) are directed onto an opaque object (6) in the light-shielded housing (1) by means of spherical mirrors (3) and (5). Some of the beams diffusely scattered by the object are reflected by a mirror (4) through a high-transmission lens (7). The fan (11) represents the projector’s cooling system. In the diascopic-projection mode, the mirror (5) is tilted so that beams from the light source (2) can enter a condenser (8). Uniformly Illuminating a diapositive that has been inserted into a holder (9), the condenser directs the beams into a lens (10), which projects an image onto a screen.