epidural

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epidural

1. upon or outside the dura mater
2. 
a. injection of anaesthetic into the space outside the dura mater enveloping the spinal cord
b. anaesthesia induced by this method

epidural

[¦ep·ə¦du̇r·əl]
(anatomy)
Located on or over the dura mater.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, a thorough and frequent respiratory assessment during administration of epidural analgesia will reduce the patient's risk for respiratory depression.
Conclusions: In this study, it was determined that the pain decreased with epidural analgesia, perfusion index increased and the pain level increased significantly when the perfusion index started to decrease.
Comparisons between hospitals in hospitals of Athens and other cities regarding the anesthetic/analgesic practice in obstetrics Type of anesthesia/ Hospitals in Hospitals in other analgesia Athens cities p value RA for CD 77.1% 64.5% <0.001 SA for CD 36.1% 49.2% <0.001 CSEA for CD 35.1% 7.9% <0.001 GA for CD 22.8% 35.4% <0.001 LEA 30.3% 13.1% <0.001 PCA remifentanil 50% 2.5% 0.002 Blocks by the 37.5% 2.5% 0.013 obstetrician CD: cesarean delivery; CSEA: combined spinal-epidural anesthesia; GA: general anesthesia; LEA: labor epidural analgesia; PCA: patient-controlled analgesia; RA: regional anesthesia; SA: spinal anesthesia; p<0.05 denotes statistical significance
A recent audit at a tertiary public hospital in the Western Cape revealed that only 2.2% of labouring mothers received labour epidural analgesia, and that epidural placement was done for a medical indication, upon request from an obstetrician, and not on patient request.
We have devised aprotocol for postoperative use of enoxaparin with concomitant use of epidural analgesia that can safely be incorporated into the current management protocols.
Compared with other forms of pain relief, epidural analgesia is associated with the highest level of maternal satisfaction.
All categories chose "Epidural analgesia" by 1.8 : 1 or greater except for "Qualification," and the "Board eligible and obstetric anesthesia fellowship trained (BE&F)" chose both options equally.
Intrapartum details including duration of active phase of labour and second stage of labour, birth weight of baby, use of oxytocin for augmentation and its duration, epidural analgesia, mode of delivery, episiotomy, any extended perineal tear, or vulva haematoma were recorded as well.
We believe that the rarity of NMO among patients requesting epidural analgesia necessitates the following cautious approach: (1) in-depth discussion about the increased risk of NMO relapse during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, as well as further discussion about the natural course of NMO whereby most patients develop a relapsing pattern; (2) detailed documentation of the patient's baseline neurologic exam; and (3) postpartum follow-up with the patient.
Unlike our study where we administered 3 mg morphine and 50 mcg fentanyl added to the 16 ml bupivacaine to the epidural space in the single-dose EPI group patients, all patients in Onishi et al.'s study received morphine to establish an epidural analgesia, and the volunteering patients were given an additional TAP block.
Caudal analgesia was quite popular until the numerous merits of lumbar epidural analgesia were noticed.[TM]