epigenetics

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epigenetics

[¦ep·ə·jə¦ned·iks]
(genetics)
The study of those processes by which genetic information ultimately results in distinctive physical and behavioral characteristics.
References in periodicals archive ?
14) Moshe Szyf, The Dynamic Epigenome and its Implications in Toxicology, 100 J.
Tightly packaged nucleosomes protect and bind DNA, and this string of beads forms chromatin, the third part of the epigenome.
Researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund's Roadmap Epigenomics Program have mapped the epigenomes of more than 100 types of cells and tissues, providing new insight into which parts of the genome are used to make a particular type of cell.
The investigators used genomewide bisulfite DNA sequencing of maternal plasma to comprehensively assess the epigenomic profiles of both fetal and maternal epigenomes noninvasively, serially, and on a genomewide scale.
Importantly, epigenetic modifications of both DNA and histones are time- and tissue- or organ-specific; as a result, disruptions of the epigenome can have vastly diverse consequences, depending on the developmental stage and tissue or organ affected.
Experience and the environment (in the broadest sense) are major determinants of which genes are expressed and which are silenced, and as the environment changes, so may the epigenome, the system that regulates gene expression.
Substantial evidence is mounting proclaiming that commonly consumed bioactive dietary factors act to modify the epigenome and may be incorporated into an 'epigenetic diet.
It is also considered to be an essential nutrient for the epigenome, due to its roles in enzymes that control methylation and 'epigenetically modify DNA and histones' (Tomat 2010).
Mapping the epigenome has become increasingly important as we realize that the genome holds only a fraction of the information needed to understand development and disease.
According to the company, in vitro testing showed that the functionality of the ingredient comes from its ability to influence the epigenome of several genes important to the skin barrier.
Unlike the genome, the epigenome can be changed by factors and influences in the environment.