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Episcopal Church,Anglican church of the United States. Its separate existence as an American ecclesiastical body with its own episcopate began in 1789.
Doctrine and Organization
The Episcopal Church maintains that the Holy Scriptures are the ultimate rule of faith. Its symbols of doctrine are the Apostles' and the Nicene Creed and the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England, with certain modifications to fit American conditions. The ministry is of three orders: deacons, priests, and bishops. The system of organization includes the parish, the diocese, the province, and the General Convention. The General Convention, the highest ecclesiastical authority in the church, consists of the House of Bishops and the House of Deputies (which includes the clergy and laity) and meets in session every three years. The ecclesiastical head of the church is the presiding bishop, elected by the General Convention. The National Council, set up in 1919, is delegated by the General Convention to administer all the organized missionary, educational, and social work. The church has more 2.4 million members in the United States (2005).
Anglicanism in America
Anglican Church services in America were first held in 1607 in Jamestown, Va. Except in Maryland and Virginia, there were few clergymen of the Established Church in the colonies. The New England Puritans, although they had not actually seceded from the Church of England, proscribed all that was Anglican. However, in 1686, when the colonial charter of Massachusetts was revoked, Church of England clergymen were appointed in that colony. In 1689, King's Chapel, Boston, was opened, and Trinity Church in New York City was consecrated. Anglicans were active in establishing institutions of higher learning in the colonies. In 1693, James BlairBlair, James,
1656–1743, Church of England clergyman, missionary to colonial Virginia, and founder of the College of William and Mary, b. Scotland. At the request of the bishop of London, Blair traveled to Virginia in 1685 to revive and reform the church in the colony.
..... Click the link for more information. , an Anglican missionary to colonial Virginia, secured the charter for the College of William and Mary. King's College (now Columbia Univ.) was founded in 1754.
An American Church
During the American Revolution the personal loyalties of the church's clergy and laity were seriously split, and American independence brought about the disestablishment of the Anglican Church. After the Revolution the first objective of American Anglicans was to organize a native episcopacy and a national church. The new ecclesiastical body was called the Protestant Episcopal Church, a name approved in 1789 by the first General Convention of the denomination, which also adopted a constitution and a revised version of the Book of Common PrayerBook of Common Prayer,
title given to the service book used in the Church of England and in other churches of the Anglican Communion. The first complete English Book of Common Prayer was produced, mainly by Thomas Cranmer, in 1549 under Edward VI.
..... Click the link for more information. . Dr. Samuel SeaburySeabury, Samuel,
1729–96, American clergyman, first bishop of the Episcopal Church, b. Connecticut, grad. Yale, 1748. He studied medicine at the Univ. of Edinburgh, then turned to theology and was ordained (1753) a priest in the Church of England before returning to
..... Click the link for more information. of Connecticut was consecrated bishop in 1784 by bishops of Scotland, and William White of Pennsylvania and Samuel ProvoostProvoost, Samuel
, 1742–1815, first Episcopal bishop of New York, b. New York City, grad. King's College (now Columbia Univ.), 1758. He studied at Cambridge and in 1766 was ordained. He was appointed assistant minister of Trinity parish in New York City.
..... Click the link for more information. of New York were consecrated bishops in England in 1787. In 1817, General Theological Seminary was organized, and in 1820 the Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society was established.
Episcopal churches were founded by settlers in the newly opened regions of the West. During the Civil War the church was necessarily disunited, but at the General Conference of 1865 there was a full reunion. In 1873 a group of clergy and laity withdrew from the main body, in disagreement over certain sacramental and ritualistic practices, and formed the Reformed Episcopal Church.
In recent decades the church (renamed the Episcopal Church in 1967) has been deeply involved in the ecumenical movement and in focusing the attention of Christians on social issues. Decisions in favor of prayer book revision and the ordination of women were made by the General Convention in 1976. In 1989, Barbara Harris of the Massachusetts diocese was consecrated as the first woman bishop in the Anglican CommunionAnglican Communion,
the body of churches in all parts of the world that are in communion with the Church of England (see England, Church of). The communion is composed of regional churches, provinces, and separate dioceses bound together by mutual loyalty as expressed in the
..... Click the link for more information. , and in 1993 Mary McLeod became bishop of Vermont, the first woman in the United States to head a diocese of the church. In 1999, the Episcopal Church joined with several others in establishing full communion with the country's largest Lutheran denomination.
The growing role of women in the church and differences over social issues, including the church's stand on homosexuality, caused divisiveness in the 1980s and 1990s. The election by the church in 2003 of its first openly homosexual bishop threatened to split both the church and the Anglican Communion. The church was asked in 2005 to withdraw from the meeting of the Anglican Consultative Council later that year, which it did voluntarily, attending as an observer. In 2006 Katharine Jefferts SchoriJefferts Schori, Katharine,
1954–, American Episcopal bishop, b. Pensacola, Fla. An oceanographer (Ph.D. Oregon State Univ., 1983) who had worked with the National Marine Fisheries Service, she was ordained an Episcopal priest in 1994 and served in Corvallis, Oreg.
..... Click the link for more information. was elected Episcopal presiding bishop, making her the first woman to head an Anglican church; the church also effectively called for a moratorium on electing openly homosexual bishops.
A 2007 proposal by the Anglican Communion primates to established a separate vicar for conservative American parishes was opposed by Episcopal bishops, who declared it contrary to the constitution and nature of the church; the bishops also accused foreign bishops and primates of violating the church's provincial boundaries. The Nigerian primate, Peter AkinolaAkinola, Peter Jasper,
1944–, Nigerian Anglican prelate. He was ordained a deacon in 1978 and a priest in 1979. From 1978 on he built the Anglican church in Abuja, Nigeria, from practically nothing into a flourishing institution.
..... Click the link for more information. , an outspoken conservative critic of the Episcopal Church, subsequently installed a Virginia bishop as head of a conservative North American Anglican convocation. Other American bishops similarly have been consecrated by other African Anglican churches, and several Episcopal dioceses have voted to secede from the church. In 2008 four secessionist conservative dioceses announced the formation of the Anglican Church in North America, adopting canons that that differed with the Episcopal Church on homosexuality, woman bishops, and other issues. The Episcopal moratorium on electing openly homosexual bishops was ended in 2009, and in 2010, after a lesbian was elected assistant bishop in Los Angeles, the Anglican Communion suspended Episcopalians from serving as official Anglican members on ecumenical bodies. Broader participatory sanctions on the church were imposed in 2016 by the Communion for a three-year period after the church decided (2015) to allow a marriage rite for same-sex couples. Michael Bruce Curry, the first African American to serve in the post, became presiding bishop in 2015.
See R. B. Mullin, Episcopal Vision/American Reality (1986); R. W. Prichard, History of the Episcopal Church (1991).
Episcopal Church(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
Members of the Anglican Church faced a dilemma during and after the American Revolution.
On the one hand, they were members and faithful communicants of a church that acknowledged the King of England as its "supreme governor." They believed their church had practiced apostolic succession that continued in an unbroken line all the way back to the apostle Peter, and that if Henry VIII hadn't divorced his wife to marry Anne Boleyn they would all still be Catholic. Tied to England by strong ecclesiastical cords, they couldn't ordain clergy without an American bishop, and they didn't have any American bishops. Since most of their priests had returned to England, to the mother church, they were in desperate need to replenish the ranks.
On the other hand, they were loyal Americans. They believed in independence and wanted to stay in the country that many of their members had died to protect.
It seemed their cause was lost and Anglicanism would die out in the new United States.
Enter William White of Christ Church in Philadelphia, former chaplain to the Continental Congress. Almost singlehandedly, he laid the groundwork for a general convention, held in his hometown, in 1785. There, his fellow American Anglicans framed a constitution, revised the liturgy, and arranged for the consecration of bishops after the British Parliament made the necessary legal adjustments.
It all came together on February 4, 1787. White and Samuel Provost of New York were elevated to the Episcopal rank of bishop in England's Lambeth Chapel, thus forging a new American link in the long Protestant side of the apostolic chain. The Protestant Episcopal Church, though still facing trials inherent in any new endeavor, was born. Because of the historical position priests held and the tradition they represented, the Episcopal Church called its parish priests "Father," as was the case in both Catholic and Anglican tradition.
The Episcopal Church in America, although an independent entity, is still a part of the worldwide Anglican Communion. These historic ties, however, were recently threatened. In 1998 the Anglican Communion, including their Episcopalian representatives, approved a resolution "rejecting homosexual practice as incompatible with Scripture." But in July of 2003 the Episcopal Diocese of New Hampshire voted in their general convention to elect a gay bishop. The Reverend V. Gene Robinson is a divorced father of two grown children who has been living faithfully in openness with his male partner for thirteen years. This election represents the first time that a church claiming apostolic succession has elected an openly gay bishop. In response, conservatives in both the Anglican and Episcopalian denominations have threatened to break fellowship, but as of this writing, no such action has been taken.