In order to take into account the interactions and to implement the method for epistasis
detection, we apply a twostage procedure (see the Screen and Clean method proposed by Wu et al.
More and more machine learning methods are applied to research epistasis
. Many methods were proposed to model epistasis
effect from the perspective of the overall data.
Xu et al., "Importance of epistasis
as the genetic basis of heterosis in an elite rice hybrid," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Besides protein levels, we studied the role of HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion (3'UTR) and PAPP-A A/C (rs7020782) polymorphisms as possible genetic markers predisposing to GDM, and we further investigated the genetic epistasis
between these two genes on GDM risk.
These genes interact in complex ways (epistasis
), modifying each other's output to increase or decrease disease susceptibility.
Additive [d] and additive A- dominant epistasis
[j] gene effects were found for fertile tillers in 10 dS m-1 of NaCl salinity.
The "t" tests were also non-significant, confirming the adequacy of model with no non-allelic interaction (epistasis
) and indicate that genes were independent in their action for random combinations.
During necropsy, intense epistasis
, oral cavity bleeding, hemothorax and hemoperitoneum were observed, suggesting that the cause of death of this maned wolf was traumatism, probably due to road killing.
These bacteria provide strong evidence that the evolution of antibiotic resistance is governed by two properties of genes, pleiotropy and epistasis
. Dr Arjan de Visser from Wageningen University explained, "Pleiotropy describes how the antibiotic resistance mutations affect other functions, hence their fate in other environments.
A restricted partition method as a nonparametric approach was recently developed for estimating epistasis
, and it overcame the problem in the conventional epistatic analysis (Culverhouse et al., 2004).