Equipotential Surface


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equipotential surface

[¦e·kwə·pə′ten·chəl ′sər·fəs]
(electricity)
A surface on which the electric potential is the same at every point.
(geophysics)
A surface characterized by the potential being constant everywhere on it for the attractive forces concerned.
(mechanics)
A surface which is always normal to the lines of force of a field and on which the potential is everywhere the same.

Equipotential Surface

 

in geodesy, a surface where the gravitational potential is the same at all points. The direction of the normal to an equipotential surface coincides with the direction of the force of gravity, that is, with the plumb line. An example of an equipotential surface is the surface of a liquid in equilibrium. The equipotential surface of the earth’s gravity field coincides with the mean water level in the oceans; this surface is called the geoid and is taken as the mathematical surface of the earth, or the “sea level,” from which the heights of points of the earth’s surface are measured. The form of the geoid is highly complex and depends on the internal structure of the earth.


Equipotential Surface

 

a surface all of whose points have the same potential. For example, the surface of a conductor in electrostatics is an equipotential surface. In a force field the lines of force are normal, or perpendicular, to an equipotential surface.

References in periodicals archive ?
2 show the correspondence of the thermopause with the main equipotential surface [42; [infinity]] = 650 km of the fundamental field F, calibrated on the electron wavelength.
While the outer belt maximum corresponds with the main equipotential surface [45; [infinity]] = 13000 km of the fundamental field F, calibrated on the electron wavelength, the inner belt maximum corresponds with the equipotential surface [43; 2] = 3000 km that is the main equipotential surface [51; [infinity]] of the fundamental field F, calibrated on the proton wavelength.
2 show the correspondence of the PBL features with the main equipotential surfaces [35; [infinity]] = 600 m, [36; [infinity]] = 1600 m and [37; [infinity]] = 4.5 km of the fundamental field F, calibrated on the electron wavelength.
To a certain extent, we could select an arbitrary value for [W.sub.geoid], but if we want to comply with the traditional definition, which says that the geoid is an equipotential surface coinciding with the mean ocean level (with dynamic ocean topography removed), it is possible to determine [W.sub.geoid] within the framework of the so-called scale factor [R.sub.0].
The dowsing rods align themselves perpendicular to the equipotential surface. The distance that the user first detects rod movement is proportional to the size and geometry of the object.
The scalar potential difference [DELTA]F of sequent equipotential surfaces at a given layer k is defined by the difference of continued fractions (1).
As a consequence, the fundamental field of the proton is complementary to that of the electron, because integer logarithms of the proton F correspond to half logarithms of the electron F and vice versa, so that the scaling factor [square root of e] connects similar equipotential surfaces of the proton field with those of the electron field in alternating sequence [8].
The quality of approximation of the water-surface to the equipotential surface depends on the rate of changes of the field of potential forces, the hydrodynamic parameters of the system, the viscosity of the applied fluid, as well as the level of local-origin disturbances.
Where the gravity field is stronger, the distance between the equipotential surfaces is shorter (for example in point A compared to point B on Fig.
Since the equipotential surfaces are not parallel i.e.
To determine normal height differences of points, it is necessary to evaluate non-paralellity of normal field equipotential surfaces as well as real and normal field non-coincidence.
Normal height difference in LKS 94 (the Lithuanian Coordinate System of 1994) was determined in the GRS 80 normal field, applying the new European gravity system and evaluating the non-linearity of GRS 80 normal field equipotential surfaces (Moritz 1988).