Equisetum


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Related to Equisetum: Equisetum arvense
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Equisetum

 

(horsetail), a genus of perennial herbs of the family Equisetaceae. Many species are evergreens. From the strongly branched rhizome depart longitudinally grooved aboveground shoots, which, like the rhizome, are segmented into regularly alternating nodes and hollow internodes. The nodes bear whorls of poorly developed leaves; the leaves are fused below in the sheath that embraces the base of the internode. Also departing from the nodes are branches that are arranged in whorls and that penetrate the fused bases of the leaves. The epidermis of the stem is impregnated with silica, which gives the stem rigidity. Photosynthesis is effected by the green stems and branches, since the leaves are poorly developed. Horsetails reproduce by spores, which develop in sporangia on corymbiform sporophylls. The spores are equipped with hygroscopic filaments, or elaters, that promote distribution.

There are about 30 species, distributed throughout the world except in Australia and New Zealand. Most species are slender and low, measuring less than 1 m in height. Exceptions include the climbing tropical South American E. giganteum, which reaches 12 m in length and about 3 cm in diameter, and the Mexican E. schaffneri, whose stems reach about 2 m in height and 10 cm in diameter.

The USSR has 13 or 14 species, growing in swamps, forests, meadows, fields, and bodies of water. A number of species, including E. variegatum, E. scirpoides, and E. sylvaticum, are eaten by deer, certain domestic animals, and game animals (for example, hares, partridges, and black grouse). E. hiemale, which contains a great deal of silica, is used by the local population for polishing. E. arvense, a pernicious weed whose rhizome penetrates deep (1 m or more) into the soil, is sometimes used medicinally—as a diuretic—in the form of an infusion or liquid extract. E. palustre is poisonous to agricultural animals.

M. E. KIRPICHNIKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Equisetum species, like many angiosperms, appear to exhibit allelopathy.
By contrast, equisetum leaves are tiny, insignificant, scale-like structures growing at nodes along the stem.
9 6 7 7 4 Sesamum indicum 8 11 12 11 15 Coffea arabica 8 12 13 11 11 Curcuma longa 9 9 9 7 7 Equisetum arvense 7 11 12 11 13 Hypericum perforatum 7 9 9 8 9 Origanum vulgare 10 11 12 13 11 Rosmarinus officinalis 9 11 10 11 11 Camellia sinensis 4 11 10 14 15 Vaccinium myrtillus 8 12 11 14 9 M14WM MCF-7 HT29 Salvia officinalis 8 9 9 Malva sylvestris 7 3 10 Mentha piperita 8 6 9 Chamaemelum nobile 7 8 5 Melissa officinalis 7 9 6 Thymus vulgaris 13 12 9 Plantago lanceolata 11 9 6 Calendula officinalis 11 10 8 Tilia europaea 10 8 5 Aloysia citrodora 11 5 6 Syzygium aromaticum 11 7 9 Coriandrum sativum 10 11 9 Cinnamomum verum 8 11 10 Papaver rhoeas 11 10 5 Aframomum 15 11 6 Helianthus annuus 8 6 4 Cuminum cyminum L.
P, S P, S Alisma plantago-aquatica P, L, S P, S Sagittaria sagittifolia P P Sparganium erectum P, S Butomus umbellatus P, L, S P Ranunculus reptans P Equisetum fluviatile P P, L Sium latifolium P, L, S P L, S Solanum dulcamara S S Lythrum salicaria P, L, S S P Mentha arvensis S S Rorippa amphibia P, L, S P, L, S Myosotis palustris P, S P, S Lysimachia vulgaris P, S Lysimachia thyrsiflora S Rumex hydrolapathum P L Oenanthe aquatica P P Phalaris arundinacea P, L, S P, L, S Rumex maritimus P, S S Scirpus radicans P Polygonum amphibium P P Nuphar lutea P Nymphaea sp.
(2004) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydroalcoholic extract of stems from Equisetum arvense L.
Ophioglossum californicum, Psilotum nudum and Equisetum
Standards and microwave assisted water extracts from Achillea milleffolium (herb), Althaea officinalis (roots), Equisetum arvense (herb), Juglans regia (leaves), Matricaria chamomella (flowers) and Taraxacum officinale (herb) were the samples used for this study.
Mixed-linkage (1[right arrow]3, 1[right arrow]4)- [beta]-D-glucan is an major component of Equisetum (horsetail) cell walls.
were found only in the PM microsites (Table 2), whereas the Equisetum ramosissimum L.
The plants selected for the study of the inhibitory effect on [alpha]-amylase activity are Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae), Matricaria pubescens (Asteraceae), Oudneya africana (Brassicaceae), Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae), Thapsia garganica (Ombellifereae), and Cistus whose type has not been determined.