The acid-base technique utilizes an appropriate color-based indicator that reflects the general pH range of the equivalence point
. pH or conductance meters are used when more precision than the general color is required or when weak acids or bases are used as reagents.
The general consensus is that, from an equivalence point
of view, no solution is entirely satisfactory and Berman's warnings about the risks involved in attempting the translation of vernacular language are repeatedly quoted (e.g.
In comparison with the Epton titration you profit from the following advantages: Use of unproblematic solvents instead of chloroform short determination times: only a few minutes per titration objective, computer-supported determination of the equivalence point
and therefore improved precision can easily be automated In an extensive Europe-wide interlaboratory test the potentiometric two-phase titration was compared with the Epton method and was found to yield the same analytical results with a better repeatability.
In this method, the equivalence point
is obtained from the x-axis intercept.
The precision to be expected from three different methods for determining the equivalence point
in a volumetric boric acid-sodium hydroxide titration were examined by Monte Calro simulation.
The equivalence points
are used as a measure of school performance and it is expected that the proportion of students who pass at grades 1-3 will be about the same as would get G-D in the unreformed version, whilst the proportion gaining Grade 7 and above are expected to be about the same as those achieving A or above in the old grades.
For both conditions, the choice procedure yielded equivalence points that measure the immediate amount reward or cost that is subjectively equivalent to the larger delayed reward or cost.
In the reward condition, these equivalence points were calculated by averaging two values: (a) the value at which the participant switched preference from the immediate to the delayed reward when the immediate rewards were presented in order of descending value, and (b) the value at which the participant switched preference from the delayed to the immediate reward when the rewards were presented in order of ascending value.
The choice procedure yielded equivalence points
at which participants were indifferent between the smaller, immediate and the larger, delayed reward for eight different delays of the larger reward.