McIlvane & Dube, 2003; McIlvane, Sema, Dube, & Stromer, 2000 see also Carrigan & Sidman, 1992; de Rose, 1996; and Johnson & Sidman, 1993, for the importance of controlling relations in determining outcomes in equivalence tests).
Kato, de Rose, and Faleiros (2008) showed that formation of six-member equivalence classes was more probable when performance in blank-comparison probes was consistent with both sample-S+ and sample-S- controlling relations (i.
This makes equivalence of Chinese words and English words more complex; thus there is need for a clear explanation of this relationship that exists between English and Chinese equivalences.
Equivalence between Chinese and English words is complex due to the fact that a single word in Chinese might have 3 to 5 other equivalent words in English, while in some cases a single English word might also have other several equivalences in Chinese.
A widely used method to strengthen comparability has been the rise of different types of equivalences.
However, with some exceptions (Sparks, 2002; Malhotra Agarwal and Peterson, 1996) equivalences have mainly been studied in the context of quantitative marketing research (e.
Keywords: Conditional discrimination, Equivalence
, Relational Frame Theory, Language, Autism.
is perhaps the most well known example of the phenomenon of derived or emergent stimulus relations.
1997) suggest that the generation of equivalence
responding underlies a wide range of cognitive abilities.
In typical stimulus equivalence
studies, relations between stimuli are usually established by arbitrary matching-to-sample (MTS) procedures.
This type or relational responding has become known as arbitrary relational responding, of which stimulus equivalence
is one example.
Some studies have shown that the prerequisites for stimulus equivalence
and the formation of equivalence
classes are established more readily with the use of pictures as at least one of the stimulus sets (Arntzen, 2004; Holth & Arntzen, 1998a).