Desiderius Erasmus

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Erasmus, Desiderius

 

(Erasmus Roterodamus, or Erasmus of Rotterdam). Born Oct. 28, 1469, in Rotterdam; died July 12, 1536, in Basel. Dutch humanist scholar, writer, philologist, and theologian; one of the most prominent representatives of the northern Renaissance.

Erasmus studied at the University of Paris from 1495 to 1499. He lived in France, England, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland, and he was renowned throughout Europe. He wrote in Latin, then the universal language of educated Europeans.

Erasmus was decisively influenced by Dutch mysticism and humanist education, as well as by the circle of scholars known as the Oxford reformers (of which J. Colet was one) who called for a new, deeper, and scientifically substantiated reading of the holy texts of Christianity. In 1517, Erasmus brought out the first printed edition of the New Testament in the Greek original, with his own wide-ranging commentaries; the 1519 edition was accompanied by his own Latin translation. He created an elegant new system of theology, which he called “the philosophy of Christ.” The system is chiefly concerned with man in his relation to god and with man’s moral responsibilities before god; Erasmus circumvents the questions arising in speculative theology, such as the creation of the world, original sin, and the triadic nature of the deity, which he views as having no vital significance and as being fundamentally insoluble.

Erasmus headed a humanist trend that came to be called Christian humanism. He spoke against the spread of worldly influences in the church, the veneration of relics, monastic parasitism and false piety, and empty religious rituals, and in this sense he was a precursor of the Reformation. However, he was no less consistently opposed to the fanaticism, the rigid dogmatism, and especially the limitless abasement of man before god that characterized Lutheranism; for this reason he broke with Luther, whom he had previously supported. Neither side was satisfied with Erasmus’ position, and he was forced to flee from Louvain and from Basel to escape the religious fanaticism of Louvain’s Catholics (1521) and Basel’s church reformers (1528).

Erasmus left an enormous number of works, the most famous being the Praise of Folly (1509; Russian translation, 1960) and the Colloquies (1519–35; Russian translation, 1969). The former work is a philosophical satire and the second is primarily concerned with morals and manners; they share, however, a common foundation—a strong belief in the contradictory nature of all reality and the instability of the boundary between opposites. Mistress Folly, singing her own praises, turns easily into wisdom, self-satisfied high-mindedness into obtuse baseness, and limitless power into the worst slavery; consequently the most valuable rule in life is “Nothing in excess!” This conviction represents the essence of Erasmus’ ideological position, which his other works reflect as well. His collection of proverbs (Adagia, 1500) includes ancient Greek and Roman sayings and aphorisms with commentaries.

Many of Erasmus’ pedagogical, morally instructive, and theological works were designed to promote a particular point of view—for example, the anti-Lutheran treatise On Free Will (1524) and the Liberal Education of Children (1529). Erasmus was a great master of the epistolary genre, and his voluminous correspondence has been preserved.

WORKS

Opera omnia, vols. 1–4. Amsterdam, 1971–73.
Opus epistolarum, vols. 1–12. Edited by P. S. Allen. Oxford, 1906–58.

REFERENCES

Markish, S. P. Znakomstvo s Erazmom iz Rotterdama. Moscow, 1971.
Smirin, M. M. “O politicheskoi kontseptsii Erazma Rotterdam skogo.” In the collection Ezhegodnik germanskoi istorii 1972. Moscow, 1973.
Smith, P. Erasmus. New York, 1962.
Huizinga, J. Erasmus, 5th ed. Haarlem, 1958.
Tracy, J. Erasmus—the Growth of a Mind. Geneva, 1972.
References in periodicals archive ?
Already before the radical proposals of Machiavelli, such possible reconciliation had become a subject of intense debate among the humanists of Italy to whom More and others in the Erasmian circle were still looking for intellectual leadership.
There is a further Erasmian reminiscence in sonnet 76, where the poet presents his work as a general satire without individual targets: "S'il est donques permis, sans offense d'aucun, / Des meurs de nostre temps deviser en commun" (vv.
The chapters are ordered by chronology rather than subject, and this structure allows Dodds to present a straightforward account of the development of Erasmian themes over nearly two centuries.
passionately decides to take up the Erasmian cause by
Given Eden's identification of the essential role of literary transmission and printed reproduction in the Erasmian reworking of Greek and Roman discourses of philia and amicitia, however, the question of how marital relations came, in Erasmus's writings, to be redefined as relations of affectionate friendship becomes harder, not easier, to understand.
His latest and most learned biographer, Thomas Mayer, has presented him as a gentle Erasmian figure, a tolerationist manque who shrank from brutal measures and the same view informs, for example, the recent fictional treatment of the cardinal in Lucy Beckett's vivid novel about the Reformation, The Time Before you Die.
Although "Linacre's Syntax" never passed into general use in England, it became very popular and influential in Erasmian intellectual circles on the Continent.
16) To dismiss passive Christianity, especially given the residues of Erasmian humanism in Elizabethan England, is to mistake a multifaceted religious culture for a straightforwardly militant one.
The key images Waddington studies in his richly illustrated book are the Priapus, the Erasmian author portrait, the author-as-prophet portrait, and many variations of the satyr or the silenus (a philosophical satyr), including the phallic-satyr head.
4) This sounds rather more like Voltaire's ecrasez l'infame than Erasmian Anglicanism.
By imaginatively rethinking Erasmian critiques of Stoicism, scholasticism, dogmatism, Shakespeare poses challenges to any project of engineering subject formation that assumes humans are infinitely malleable--that they are either the mere "constructions" of external contexts or the self-authored products of autonomous will.
22) While Ascham followed in the Erasmian tradition of educating a Christian prince in the moral principles of good governance, Elizabeth entered herself into the 'scole of experience', refining the performing instincts which would later earn her a reputation for Machiavellian duplicity.