Erasmus


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Erasmus

(ĭrăz`məs) or

Desiderius Erasmus

(dĕsĭdēr`ēəs) [Gr. Erasmus, his given name, and Lat., Desiderius=beloved; both are regarded as the equivalent of Dutch Gerard, Erasmus' father's name], 1466?–1536, Dutch humanist, b. Rotterdam. He was ordained priest of the Roman Catholic Church and studied at the Univ. of Paris. Erasmus' influence began to be felt in Europe after 1500. It was exercised through his personal contacts, his editions of classical authors, and his own writings. He was acquainted with most of the scholars of Europe and his circle of friends was especially large in England; it included Thomas More, John Colet, and Henry VIII. His editions of Greek and Latin classics and of the Fathers of the Church (especially of Jerome and Athanasius) were his chief occupation for years. His Latin edition of the New Testament was based on the original Greek text. For many years he was editor for the printer Johannes FrobenFroben, Johannes
, 1460–1527, German printer. He established himself at Basel and there in 1516 printed the Greek New Testament, edited and translated into Latin by Erasmus.
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 in Basel. Erasmus' original works are mainly satirical and critical. Written in Latin, the language of the 16th-century scholar, the most important works are Adagia (1500, tr. Adages or Proverbs), a collection of quotations; Enchiridion militis christiani (1503, tr. Manual of the Christian Knight); Moriae encomium (1509, tr. The Praise of Folly, 1979); Institutio principis christiani (1515, tr. The Education of a Christian Prince, 1968); Colloquia (1516, tr. Colloquies); and his collected letters (tr., ed. by F. M. Nichols, 1904–18; repr. 1962). Erasmus combined vast learning with a fine style, a keen and sometimes sharp humor, moderation, and tolerance. His position on the Reformation was widely denounced, especially by Martin Luther, who had first looked on Erasmus as an ally because of Erasmus' attacks on clerical abuse and lay ignorance. Though eager for church reform, Erasmus remained all his life within the Roman Catholic Church. As a humanist he deplored the religious warfare of the time because of the rancorous, intolerant atmosphere and cultural decline that it induced. Erasmus was finally brought into open conflict with Luther and attacked his position on predestination in On the Freedom of the Will.

Bibliography

See studies by M. M. Phillips (1949, repr. 1965), J. Huizinga (tr. 1952, repr. 1957), R. H. Bainton (1969), T. A. Dorey, ed. (1970), and G. Thompson (1974).

Erasmus

Desiderius , real name Gerhard Gerhards. ?1466--1536, Dutch humanist, the leading scholar of the Renaissance in northern Europe. He published the first Greek edition of the New Testament in 1516; his other works include the satirical Encomium Moriae (1509); Colloquia (1519), a series of dialogues; and an attack on the theology of Luther, De Libero Arbitrio (1524)
References in periodicals archive ?
It is a huge task to coach the Springboks, and I am very privileged," Erasmus said.
The number of students who have participated in the ERASMUS mobility programmes is now over 4.
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Launched in 2014 to continue until 2020, Erasmus + aims to support actions in the fields of education, training, youth and sports.
The EU's Erasmus Mundus programme aims to enhance quality in higher education through scholarships and academic co-operation between the EU and the rest of the world.
In a lengthy letter to his correspondent and member of the Papal Curia Jacopo Sadoleto (1477-1547), the longest letter in this volume, Erasmus complains about the ferocious conflicts but remains optimistic despite everything.
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The new programme for the 2014-2020 period will be called Erasmus Plus.
The grant means that Birmingham Museums Trust has raised the PS275,000 asking price for the portrait of Erasmus Darwin, painted by Joseph Wright of Derby in 1770.
Erasmus, which provides grants, is available to students in all EU member states, as well as Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey.
Mr Erasmus has worked at SWDT since 2007, and has overseen a number of major developments including the build of the company's multi-million-pound CORE facility which opened in November 2011.