Erechtheum

(redirected from Erechtheion)
Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Related to Erechtheion: Erechtheum, Parthenon

Erechtheum

(ĭrĕk`thēəm) [for ErechtheusErechtheus
, in Greek mythology, king of Athens. On the advice of an oracle he sacrificed one of his daughters during the battle between the Athenians and the Eleusinians. This enabled him to win the battle, but Poseidon later destroyed him and all his house.
..... Click the link for more information.
], Gr. Erechtheion, temple in Pentelic marble, on the Acropolis at Athens. One of the masterpieces of Greek architecture, it was constructed between c.421 B.C. and 405 B.C. to replace an earlier temple to Athena destroyed by the Persians. Its design is sometimes ascribed to the architect Mnesicles. The Erechtheum contained sanctuaries to Athena Polias, Poseidon, and Erechtheus. The temple displays the finest extant examples of the Greek Ionic orderIonic order
, one of the early orders of architecture. The spreading scroll-shaped capital is the distinctive feature of the Ionic order; it was primarily a product of Asia Minor, where early embryonic forms of this capital have been found.
..... Click the link for more information.
. The requirements of the several shrines and the location upon a sloping site produced an unusual plan. From the body of the building porticoes project on east, north, and south sides. The eastern portico, hexastyle Ionic, gave access to the shrine of Athena, which was separated by a partition from the western cella. The northern portico, tetrastyle Ionic, stands at a lower level and gives access to the western cella through a fine doorway. The southern portico, known as the Porch of the Caryatids (see caryatidcaryatid
, a sculptured female figure serving as an ornamental support in place of a column or pilaster. It was a frequently used motif in architecture, furniture, and garden sculpture during the Renaissance, the 18th cent., and notably, the classic revival of the 19th cent.
..... Click the link for more information.
) from the six sculptured draped female figures that support its entablature, is the temple's most striking feature; it forms a gallery or tribune. Five of the original figures are now in the Acropolis Museum; one, along with an east column, was removed to London by Lord Elgin. The west end of the building, with windows and engaged Ionic columns, is a modification of the original, built by the Romans when they restored the building.

Erechtheum

 

the temple of Athena and Poseidon-Erechtheus on the Acropolis in Athens, an outstanding monument of ancient Greek architecture. Built between 421 and 406 B.C., it has an asymmetrical spatial composition and comprises a number of rooms, two Ionic porticoes, and the famous Porch of the Maidens. The Erechtheum is impressive for its exquisite composition and individual details. Although modest in size, occupying an area (without porticoes) of 11.6 m × 23.5 m, it plays an important role in the Acropolis complex, contrasting with the simpler and more austere Parthenon.

REFERENCE

Brunov, N. I. Erekhteion. Moscow, 1938.

Erechtheum

Erechtheum: eastern elevation
A temple on the Acropolis in Athens; the most important monument of the Ionic style, including a fine example of a porch of caryatides.

Erechtheum

, Erechtheion
a temple on the Acropolis at Athens, which has a porch of caryatids
References in periodicals archive ?
In November 2006, a Swedish woman voluntarily returned a piece of the Erechtheion to Greece that was taken from the Acropolis in Athens by her uncle, a Swedish naval officer, in 1895.
It features three world-renowned temples including the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, and the Temple of Nike.
Built during the classical period of 450-330 BC, the site includes three major monuments: the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, and the Temple of Nike, all of which reflect the successive phases in the city's history.
He also removed a caryatid from the Porch of the Maidens belonging to the Erechtheion a few steps north of the Parthenon .
The figures on this porch from the Erechtheion in Athens shows the classical Greek sculptors at the height of their powers.
The Erechtheion with its most famous feature, the Porch of the Caryatids, marks the site of Athena's battle with Poseidon.
The large room on its ground floor (at present an antique sculpture room of the Musee du Louvre) contains the famous musicians' balcony supported by four caryatids sculpted in 1550-51 by Jean Goujon after the Erechtheion at Athens.
For this salvage practice, compare the reuse of architrave blocks from the Erechtheion for (inter alia) the base of a statue honoring Queen Glaphyra of Mauretania, ca.
and restored after 480 by Onesimos's son Theodoros, the best-preserved, left-hand fragment was found in February 1886 together with 14 marble korai in a large Perserschutt deposit west of the Erechtheion likely to date soon after the Persian sack.