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(ā`rĭdo͞o), ancient city of SumerSumer
and Sumerian civilization
. The term Sumer is used today to designate the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia. From the earliest date of which there is any record, S Mesopotamia was occupied by a people, known as Sumerians, speaking a non-Semitic language.
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, Mesopotamia, near the Euphrates, S of Ur (in present-day S Iraq). Excavations conducted from 1946 to 1949 revealed that Eridu was the earliest known settlement in S Mesopotamia and dated from c.5000 B.C. A temple discovered there was probably dedicated to the water god Ea.



(also Eredu), one of the oldest Sumerian cities (now Abu Shahrain), located in what is now southern Iraq. Founded on the shore of the Persian Gulf, Eridu developed into the center of an early farming society in southern Mesopotamia (the Eredu culture flourished from the end of the sixth millennium to the first half of the fifth millennium B.C). It was later the center of the Ubaid, or Obeid, culture and then of the Uruk culture (fourth millennium B.C). It is mentioned in written sources dating from the middle of the third millennium to the middle of the first millennium B.C. At the beginning of the third millennium B.C, it lost its importance as a city but remained the center of the cult of Ea (Enki), the god of waters and wisdom.

Excavations, conducted in 1918–20 and 1946–48, uncovered mud-brick dwellings and public buildings, a ziggurat, and platform temples, built on the site of earlier sanctuaries, including the temple of Ea, with remains of sacrifices (fishbones). The temples consisted of an elongated hall with an altar and small chambers flanking the hall on two sides, the usual plan of the Sumerian temple (beginning in the fifth millennium B.C). In the necropolis at Eridu (Ubaid period), approximately 1,000 mud-brick cists were unearthed. Cultic articles, pottery, and weapons were found.


Lloyd, S., and F. Safar. “Excavations of Eredu.” Sumer, 1947, vol. 3, no. 2; 1948, vol. 4, no. 2.
References in periodicals archive ?
This association might hearken back to the early 4th millennium BC, when Eridu was the cultural center of Mesopotamia, and its patron deity presumably held sway over most of the heavens.
BAGHDAD: Russia's Lukoil has signed contracts with Iraq's Oil Exploration Company to conduct seismic surveys at Eridu field to appraise its geological potential, and also at Block 10's southern and central parts, previously not part of the survey.
The approved geological exploration plan for Eridu field envisages the drilling of additional appraisal wells on a mid-term horizon.
They will be held at the earlier discovered Eridu field to comprehensively appraise its geological potential, and also at Block 10's southern and central parts, previously not part of the survey.
It was reported in January 2011 that a private Baghdad-based Eridu Co.
In total, there are five City Laments known to us: The Lament over Ur, The Lament over Sumer and Ur, The Lament over Uruk, The Lament over Eridu, and The Lament over Nippur.
beaucoup moins que] Les villes archeologiques d'Uruk et Ur, ainsi que le site archeologique du Tell Eridu font partie des vestiges de villes et d'etablissements sumeriens qui se developperent en Mesopotamie meridionale entre les 4e et 3e millenaires avant J.
A statement by the Embassy said today that this new listing is a recognition of the universal value of the exceptional nature of the Iraqi marshes as one of the largest land internal delta in the world, and is also a recognition of the global cultural value of areas of ancient archaeological cities of Uruk, Ur, and Tel Eridu which indicate the settlements of the Sumerians who grew up in South Mesopotamia between the fourth and third millennium BC.
Amid the chaos, Anunnaki princess Celi does what she can to help, working with her grandfather Mica to rebuild Lord Enki's temple in Eridu until shortly after her Naming Day, when the young woman is approached by Lord Enki's mate, Ninki.
Borderline members include Delphinus, the Dolphin; and Eridanus, likely the River Euphrates that flowed by ancient Eridu.
The ruins of ERIDU were dug by Hall and Thompson, of the British Museum in 1918-1919.

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