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(ā`rĭdo͞o), ancient city of SumerSumer
and Sumerian civilization
. The term Sumer is used today to designate the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia. From the earliest date of which there is any record, S Mesopotamia was occupied by a people, known as Sumerians, speaking a non-Semitic language.
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, Mesopotamia, near the Euphrates, S of Ur (in present-day S Iraq). Excavations conducted from 1946 to 1949 revealed that Eridu was the earliest known settlement in S Mesopotamia and dated from c.5000 B.C. A temple discovered there was probably dedicated to the water god Ea.



(also Eredu), one of the oldest Sumerian cities (now Abu Shahrain), located in what is now southern Iraq. Founded on the shore of the Persian Gulf, Eridu developed into the center of an early farming society in southern Mesopotamia (the Eredu culture flourished from the end of the sixth millennium to the first half of the fifth millennium B.C). It was later the center of the Ubaid, or Obeid, culture and then of the Uruk culture (fourth millennium B.C). It is mentioned in written sources dating from the middle of the third millennium to the middle of the first millennium B.C. At the beginning of the third millennium B.C, it lost its importance as a city but remained the center of the cult of Ea (Enki), the god of waters and wisdom.

Excavations, conducted in 1918–20 and 1946–48, uncovered mud-brick dwellings and public buildings, a ziggurat, and platform temples, built on the site of earlier sanctuaries, including the temple of Ea, with remains of sacrifices (fishbones). The temples consisted of an elongated hall with an altar and small chambers flanking the hall on two sides, the usual plan of the Sumerian temple (beginning in the fifth millennium B.C). In the necropolis at Eridu (Ubaid period), approximately 1,000 mud-brick cists were unearthed. Cultic articles, pottery, and weapons were found.


Lloyd, S., and F. Safar. “Excavations of Eredu.” Sumer, 1947, vol. 3, no. 2; 1948, vol. 4, no. 2.
References in periodicals archive ?
Local Firm For Integrated Refining/Petrochemical JV: It was reported in January 2011 that a private Baghdad-based Eridu Co.
Petter presents the three categories in these texts: the historical city laments (The Lamentation over Sumer and Ur, The Lamentation over the Destruction of Ur, The Eridu Lament, The Uruk Lament, and The Nippur Lament), as well as the erfemmas and Wags.
Since Eridu in Iraq became the world's first city in 5,400BC, prosperity has favoured the city.
HUMANS HAVE BEEN an urban species for at least 7,000 years, since the days of Jericho and Eridu.
The only tree that appeared suddenly in the heart of the vault was a translucent tree that Maaina puffed with the smoke of her Eridu cigarette.
4) King Eridu, the first of these patriarchs, lived 28,800 years or 8 saroi and Bad Tibira some 43,200 years or 12 saroi.
This story from the third millennium BCE features Adapa (literally, "Man"), a first-generation human and priest of the god Ea in the city of Eridu.
Preheating BRBs (a process suggested by Millard (1988: 52) and implied by the stacks of BRBs found in ovens at Eridu and Tell Brak) produced rapid pre-baking rising and significantly improved 'oven spring' (rising during baking, critically important for heavier flours) compared with a 'control' cold BRB, as well as speedier baking.
It also includes the ancient Sumerian ruins of Ur, Eridu, Lagash and Ngirsu.
5 Ur, Uruk and Eridu are examples of the world's first what?
the capable king, the restorer of the city Eridu, the purifier of the rites of the Eabzu temple .
As the marshy lands between the southern Euphrates and Tigris rivers silted in and became inhabitable, small Sumerian villages of Caucasian peoples developed into city-states such as Ur, Eridu, Ururk, Nippur, Kish, Lagash, and Babylon.

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