Eridu


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Eridu

(ā`rĭdo͞o), ancient city of SumerSumer
and Sumerian civilization
. The term Sumer is used today to designate the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia. From the earliest date of which there is any record, S Mesopotamia was occupied by a people, known as Sumerians, speaking a non-Semitic language.
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, Mesopotamia, near the Euphrates, S of Ur (in present-day S Iraq). Excavations conducted from 1946 to 1949 revealed that Eridu was the earliest known settlement in S Mesopotamia and dated from c.5000 B.C. A temple discovered there was probably dedicated to the water god Ea.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Eridu

 

(also Eredu), one of the oldest Sumerian cities (now Abu Shahrain), located in what is now southern Iraq. Founded on the shore of the Persian Gulf, Eridu developed into the center of an early farming society in southern Mesopotamia (the Eredu culture flourished from the end of the sixth millennium to the first half of the fifth millennium B.C). It was later the center of the Ubaid, or Obeid, culture and then of the Uruk culture (fourth millennium B.C). It is mentioned in written sources dating from the middle of the third millennium to the middle of the first millennium B.C. At the beginning of the third millennium B.C, it lost its importance as a city but remained the center of the cult of Ea (Enki), the god of waters and wisdom.

Excavations, conducted in 1918–20 and 1946–48, uncovered mud-brick dwellings and public buildings, a ziggurat, and platform temples, built on the site of earlier sanctuaries, including the temple of Ea, with remains of sacrifices (fishbones). The temples consisted of an elongated hall with an altar and small chambers flanking the hall on two sides, the usual plan of the Sumerian temple (beginning in the fifth millennium B.C). In the necropolis at Eridu (Ubaid period), approximately 1,000 mud-brick cists were unearthed. Cultic articles, pottery, and weapons were found.

REFERENCE

Lloyd, S., and F. Safar. “Excavations of Eredu.” Sumer, 1947, vol. 3, no. 2; 1948, vol. 4, no. 2.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
6), and the apkallu of Eridu bring it to Ea in the Apsu, suggesting this was its original home.
The Mesopotamian stories summarized are Eridu Genesis (Sumerian), Atrahasis (Baby lonian), and Gilgamesh (Babylonian) (pp.
Alongside the archaeological sites of Ur, Tell Eridu and Uruk, which contain relict landscapes from Sumerian cities of the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE, southern Iraq is home to wetland marsh areas totaling thousands of square miles.
Though it's a northern constellation, Mas-tab-ba gal-gal, the Great Twins (Gemini), was associated with the patron deity of the southern skies, Enki, the water-god of the archaic Sumerian city of Eridu. This association might hearken back to the early 4th millennium BC, when Eridu was the cultural center of Mesopotamia, and its patron deity presumably held sway over most of the heavens.
BAGHDAD: Russia's Lukoil has signed contracts with Iraq's Oil Exploration Company to conduct seismic surveys at Eridu field to appraise its geological potential, and also at Block 10's southern and central parts, previously not part of the survey.
The approved geological exploration plan for Eridu field envisages the drilling of additional appraisal wells on a mid-term horizon.
It was reported in January 2011 that a private Baghdad-based Eridu Co.
In total, there are five City Laments known to us: The Lament over Ur, The Lament over Sumer and Ur, The Lament over Uruk, The Lament over Eridu, and The Lament over Nippur.

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