Eriophorum


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Related to Eriophorum: Common Cottongrass

Eriophorum

 

(cotton grass), a genus of plants of the family Cyperaceae. The plants are perennial herbs with a creeping or shortened rhizome. Those plants having the latter type of rhizome form small tussocks. The stems are three-angled or cylindrical. The basal leaves are long, and the stem leaves are short or reduced in the form of sheaths. The bisexual flowers are borne by many-flowered spikelets, which are solitary or gathered in umbellate clusters. The perianth consists of numerous white or, less commonly, rusty hairs, which greatly elongate and become cottony after flowering. The fruit is three-angled.

There are approximately 20 species of cotton grass, distributed in the cold and temperate belts of the northern hemisphere. One species grows in the southern hemisphere, in the Transvaal. There are 14 species in the USSR, growing mainly in the arctic and forest zones and in the alpine belt of the mountains. The plants usually grow along shores and in swamps, boggy tundra, and forests. Among the most common is the hare’s-tail (E. vaginatum), which often forms broad tussocks in upriver swamps. E. polystachion and the broad-leaved cotton grass (E. latifolium) grow mainly in downriver swamps and peaty lands covered with spring water. All species of cotton grass form peat. Many species, especially hare’s-tail, are valuable early-spring forage for deer and elks. The stalks are eaten by waterfowl.

T. V. EGOROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The majority of the species that colonized the youngest basin we sampled have small seeds (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2008) and are well adapted to rapid dispersal (Epilobium palustre L, Eriophorum russeolum, Salix spp.
Peatlands cover substantial areas in boreal landscape and particularly in Finland where there are 751000 ha of oligoombrotrophic large shrub or Eriophorum vaginatum dominated peatlands [13].
In central parts Eriophorum vaginatum, Marchantia polymorpha, and Pohlia nutans and in marginal parts Bryum spp.
Reproduction of Eriophorum vaginatum by seed in Alaskan tussock tundra.
For example, the preformed buds of Eriophorum vaginatum are able to begin development before snow melt in the spring, providing the maximum amount of time for seed maturation.
Differentiation of extant and seed bank-derived populations of Eriophorum vaginatum.
Scirpus Eriophorum (wool-grass), very common, especially on low islands.
Eriophorum comosum Nees 8 Fimbristylis bisumbellata 2 (Forsskal) Bubani F.
In all sampling years, the plant communities at sodded sites were dominated by two rhizomatous graminoids, Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex aquatilis.
The pristine area (61[degrees] 01' 48" N, 25[degrees]01' 38" E, 151 m above the sea level) was classified as oligotrophic Eriophorum vaginatum pine bog, and the peat was composed mainly of Carex with a decomposition rate of H4 (i.e., peat released murky water, and after squeezing it kept its shape) at 30 cm and 50 cm depths.
Floristically, Maestracensean alkaline fens are characterized by Eriophorum latifolium, Carex davalliana, Carex lepidocarpa, Carex nigra, Carex mairei, Pinguicula vulgaris and Triglochin palustris as the most frequent species, but they also host some rare species such as Dactylorhiza incarnata, Epipactis palustris, Gentianella amarella, Juncus pyrenaeus, Spiranthes aestivalis, Primula farinosa, Swertia perennis, Potentilla fruticosa and Menyanthes trifoliata (MATEO & al., 1995; MATEO & al., 2001; GOMEZ-SERRANO & MAYORAL, 2003; GOMEZ-SERRANO & LAGUNA, 2011; etc.).
caerulea communities species of alkaline fens belonging to the class Scheuchzerio-Carietea nigrae, order Caricetalia davalliana, alliance Caricion davallianae, e.g., Eriophorum latifolium, Primula farinosa, Carex flava, Schoenus ferrugineus, and Epipactis palustris were rather frequent.