Copernicus is born in Torun in Royal Prussia, moves to school in Poland, then on to university in Italy before returning to work for his uncle in Ermland
, tussling in the process with an ambitious East Prussia.
88) In that cruise the German battle cruisers used radar to good advantage, managing to evade in heavy weather British ships that were not similarly equipped, but they also used two Dithmarschen-class trosschiffe, Ermland and Uckermark (formerly Altmark), to widen their search front.
The website German Naval History indicates diesel propulsion for Dithmarschen, Uckermark, and Franken while crediting steam propulsion for Nordmark and Ermland.
It seems likely that six different ships (Adria, Schlettstadt, Esso-Hamburg, Friedrich Breme, Ermland, and Uckermark) conducted a total of nine refueling operations at six different positions.
Oldenberg and some local Protestant clergy believed that it was a conspiracy on the part of the Catholic Church to infiltrate Prussian Mazuria and unite Catholic Ermland with Catholic West Prussia and Czarist Poland.
Catholic farmers from neighboring Prussian Ermland were purchasing the abandoned farms with aid from the Catholic Church.
Colonization started in the thirteenth century, but intensified after 1466 when the knights lost a war with Poland and had to forfeit the Ermland and the lucrative Vistula Delta with its cities of Danzig, Elbing, and Thorn.
Peter and Paul (June 29) to the Shrine of the Holy Linden in neighboring Prussian Ermland.
The Shrine of the Holy Linden in Prussian Ermland was the most popular shrine, but large numbers of Mazurians, often crossed the border into Czarist Poland and visited the shrine in Raczki (Suwalki).
Although he regretted not having earlier statistics to prove his point, Oldenberg assured his readers that "without a doubt," the districts were dealing with an organized colonization for Romanism by priests in Ermland.
In the Oldenberg paradigm, Ermland was the antithesis of everything that he believed was Prussian: it was Catholic, had belonged to Poland (1466-1772), was an outpost of the Jesuit-led Counter Reformation, and was now exporting its Catholicism.