Lawrence, Ernest Orlando

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Lawrence, Ernest Orlando,

1901–58, American physicist, b. Canton, S. Dak., grad. Univ. of South Dakota, 1922, Ph.D. Yale, 1925. Affiliated with the Univ. of California from 1928 onward, he became a professor in 1930 and director of its radiation laboratory in 1936. For his invention (1930) and development of the cyclotron (see particle acceleratorparticle accelerator,
apparatus used in nuclear physics to produce beams of energetic charged particles and to direct them against various targets. Such machines, popularly called atom smashers, are needed to observe objects as small as the atomic nucleus in studies of its
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) and his researches in atomic structure and transmutation he received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics. With the cyclotron he produced artificially radioactive elements and neutrons useful in nuclear, chemical, and biological research.

Bibliography

See G. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb (2002); M. Hiltzik, Big Science (2015).

Lawrence, Ernest Orlando

 

Born Aug. 8, 1901, in Canton, S.Dak.; died Aug. 27, 1958, in Palo Alto, Calif. American physicist.

Lawrence studied at the universities of South Dakota, Minnesota, and Chicago and at Yale University. Beginning in 1928 he worked at the University of California (as a professor from 1930), becoming director of the university’s Radiation Laboratory in 1936.

In 1930, Lawrence proposed the idea of the cyclotron and later constructed the first model with the American scientist N. Edlefsen. In subsequent years he supervised the construction of a number of accelerators in the United States. Lawrence studied nuclear reactions and artificial radioactivity. In 1933 he produced deuterons and studied the reactions induced by them. He also participated in the development of the atomic bomb and worked on problems of radiobiology and radiation therapy. A winner of a Nobel Prize (1939), he was a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1942).

WORKS

“On the Production of High Speed Protons.” Science, 1930, vol. 72, no. 1867, pp. 376-77. (With N. E. Edlefsen.)
“The Production of High Speed Light Ions Without the Use of High Voltages.” Physical Review, 1932, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19-35. (With M. S. Livingston.)

REFERENCES

Seaborg, G. T. “E. O. Lawrence—Physicist, Engineer, Statesman of Science.” Science, 1958, vol. 128, no. 3332, pp. 1123-124.
Childs, H. An American Genius: The Life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence. New York, 1968.
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Kennedy High School in Granada Hills, Bishop Alemany High School in Mission Hills and Ernest Lawrence Middle School in Chatsworth.
HISTORY -- Philip Dray, "At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America" (Random House) -- Robert Harms, "The Diligent: A Voyage through the Worlds of the Slave Trade" (Basic Books) -- Gregg Herken, "Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller" (A John Macrae Book/Henry Holt) -- Mary Beth Norton, "In the Devil's Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692" (Alfred A.
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There, he would entertain and provide the services of his lab to some of the day's most distinguished scientists--Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Enrico Fermi, and Ernest Lawrence.
Nominated individuals and the schools in which they teach are Jeremy Chung, Ernest Lawrence Middle School; Patty Fernandez, Fenton Avenue Charter School; Carlos Loya, John H.
Herken's Story of the collaboration of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller is rife with intrigue and the effects of massive egos.