Erzurum

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Erzurum

Erzurum (ĕrˈzo͝oro͝omˌ) or Erzerum (–zə–), city, capital of Erzurum prov., E Turkey. It is an agricultural trade center and a railroad center. Agricultural products include sugar beets, wheat, barley, and vegetables. Metal and leather handicrafts are also produced. Although its origins are obscure, the city was known in the 5th cent. A.D. as Theodosiopolis, an important Byzantine frontier fortress. It was later held by various peoples, including the Armenians, Persians, and Seljuk Turks, before being captured by the Ottoman Turks in the early 16th cent. The first Turkish Nationalist congress was held there in 1919. In 1983 an earthquake caused extensive damage in and around the city and killed more than 1,300 people. It is the site of Atatürk Univ.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Erzurum

 

(also Erzerum), a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Erzurum Vilayet. Population, 163,000 (1975). Erzurum is a transportation junction on a railroad line that runs from Ankara to Leninakan (USSR) and on a highway that runs from Trabzon to Tabriz (Iran). It has a meat-packing plant, sugar refineries, butter and cheese plants, a footwear factory, and furniture factories. The city has a metalworking industry. A university is located in Erzurum.

In antiquity Erzurum, which was called Karin, belonged to Armenia. It was known as Theodosiopolis under Byzantine rule and as Kalikala under the Arabian Caliphate. In the 11th century the city was captured by the Seljuks, who gave it its present name; it became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1514. The Erzurum area was on numerous occasions the scene of military conflict. The city was occupied by Russian troops in 1829 and 1878 and from 1916 to 1918 (seeERZERUM OPERATION OF 1916). In 1919, Erzurum became a center of the Kemalist Revolution.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Erzurum

a city in E Turkey: a strategic centre; scene of two major battles against Russian forces (1877 and 1916); important military base and a closed city to unofficial visitors. Pop.: 436 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Although no ordinary houses or workshops have survived, any visitor who has previously seen the medieval houses under the shadow of Erzerum's castle will have little difficulty in re-creating the scene.
The Lord God has given such great help to the super-valiant forces of the Caucasus Army that after an unprecedented five-day storm Erzerum has been taken [and] I am ineffably happy to report this victory to YOUR IMPERIAL MAJESTY." (4) The Grand Duke reported that his army had taken 14,000 prisoners; a more recent account gives the number of prisoners as only 5,000.5 Regardless of which figure is more accurate, the victory was great.
for Von Einem and the Turks; they'll rise inspired to hold Erzerum
Apart from aid to the national planning office (Directorate-General for regional development and structural adjustment) so as to boost administrative and institutional capacities, the 2003 pre-accession programme offers Euro 45.3 million worth of aid to help Turkey to embark upon integration regional development programmes in three seriously undeveloped regions (Samsun, Kastamonu and Erzerum).
This is when construction of a pipeline from Azerbaijan's offshore Shah Deniz gas field to the Turkish border town of Erzerum is to start; it will be on stream by March 2006.
For their part, the Turks agreed that the international peacekeeping force would not involve the Turkish military, and they suggested Erzerum in eastern Turkey as a logistical staging area for the force.
Nor does Salt take into account the testimony of the most sensible and clear-headed of the observers from the heart of the events -- Sir Robert Graves (uncle of the poet), who was British Consul in Erzerum. (Graves met a Turkish ex-sergeant, Suleiman, who told him that in the course of nocturnal butcheries by the Turkish army an estimated 5,000 Armenians had died at Sasun).
This is following the same route through Azerbaijan and Georgia but will end at Turkey's existing gas transmission system at Erzerum. With all the necessary inter-state agreements signed, sanction of this project by a BP-led consortium came in late 2002.
This will follow the same route through Azerbaijan and Georgia but will end at Turkey's existing gas transmission system at Erzerum.
Second Erzerum Treaty, Tehran Protocol, Delimitation Commission, Istanbul Protocol are the results of this period.
He examines the intricacies behind the Russian command structure that contributed to the assault on the Ottoman fortress of Erzerum. The next article comes from William T.
While his political opinions diverged from those of his fellow Scot, John Buchan, MacDonald's writing on Georgia uncannily echoed Greenmantle, the Tory romantic's classic First World War adventure, which climaxes at the Battle of Erzerum, Imperial Russia's last great victory over the Ottoman Empire.