In an outlook, the border disputes between Iran and Ottoman in Qajar period can be reviewed as the following: First, caused extensive period of political and diplomatic efforts to resolve border disputes resulted in Erzerum
treaties, Tehran protocols, Delimitation Commission and the Istanbul Protocol, Second, the intervention of foreign powers, especially Russia and Britain in the political acts and during treaties led to impose their view on the border demarcation dispute.
Amazingly, he actually read Buchan's Greenmantle to his imprisoned family before their execution, finding information in it Buchan got about the strategies leading to the Russian cavalry attack at Erzerum
from some visiting Russian journalists, including Vladimir Nabokov's father, whom he had shown around Scapa Flow in February, 1916.
Georgians have lived in the valleys north of Erzerum
since the Bronze Age.
A Baku-Tbilisi gas pipeline simply needs a section built from Tbilisi to the Turkish border and from Erzerum
to the Georgian border.
The extent of urban religiosity was revealed in a recent study of Kirikkale, a town of 200,000 near Ankara, conducted by Professor Beshir Atalay of Erzerum
Consisting of an inner core of eleven forts and batteries with two more forts on each flank, the fortress of Erzerum
was the central strongpoint in the Ottoman line in eastern Turkey.
Kazakhstan will be commissioning a feasibility study for the pipeline, which will see the extension of the recently completed South Caucasus Pipeline (SCP) which connects Azerbaijan's Baku, with the Georgian city of Tbilisi and Turkey's Erzerum
helped to take Erzerum
from the Turks despite the Kaiser's jihad
This is following the same route through Azerbaijan and Georgia but will end at Turkey's existing gas transmission system at Erzerum
This is when construction of a pipeline from Azerbaijan's offshore Shah Deniz gas field to the Turkish border town of Erzerum
is to start; it will be on stream by March 2006.
For their part, the Turks agreed that the international peacekeeping force would not involve the Turkish military, and they suggested Erzerum
in eastern Turkey as a logistical staging area for the force.
Nor does Salt take into account the testimony of the most sensible and clear-headed of the observers from the heart of the events -- Sir Robert Graves (uncle of the poet), who was British Consul in Erzerum