Esaias Tegnér

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Tegnér, Esaias

 

Born Nov. 13, 1782, in Kyrkerud, Värmland; died Nov. 2,1846, in Östrabo, near Växjö. Swedish poet.

The son of a pastor, Tegnér graduated from the University of Lund in 1802. In 1818 he became a member of the Swedish Academy. In 1824 he was made a bishop. Tegnér’s early poems are written in a classicistic style. Battle Song for the Skåne Militia (1808) and the epic poem Sweden (1811) reflect the events of the Russo-Swedish war (1808–09). Although Tegnér was a central figure in Swedish romanticism, his works were characterized by the rationalism and clarity of poetic thought and style associated with the aesthetics of the Enlightenment. Tegnér disputed the vague mystical ideas of the Phosphorists, a Swedish literary movement, and drew close to the romantic Gothic Society, with which he shared an interest in prefeudal Scandinavia. Rejecting the Holy Alliance, he idealized Napoleon (the poem The Awakened Eagle and other works) and the era of Charles XII (the poem Charles XII). In the lyrical epic poem Axel (1822) he glorified the love of a Swedish soldier for a Russian girl.

The interweaving of romantic classicistic motifs characterizes Tegnér’s best works— Norway (1814), Song to the Sun (1817), Children of the Lord’s Supper (1820; Russian translation, 1862), and Frithiofs Saga (1819–25; Russian translation, 1841), the most important work of Swedish romanticism. Based on an ancient Icelandic saga, Frithiof’s Saga celebrates the heroic Viking heritage. It synthesizes epic, lyric, and dramatic elements; it is distinguished by a wealth of poetic forms and devices and has become a Swedish national epic.

Tegnér’s later years were marked by a crisis in his world view and work, partly as a result of mental illness. His poems Ode to Melancholy, The Dead One, and Farewell to My Lyre are permeated with pessimism.

WORKS

Samlade skrifter, parts 1–10. Stockholm, 1918–25.
Brev, vols. 1–10. Malmö, 1953–70.
In Russian translation:
Saga o Frit’ofe; Aksel’. Introduction by G. G. Aleksandrov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Saga o Frit’ofe. Introduction by V. Admoni. Moscow, 1959.

REFERENCES

Belinskii, V. G. “Fritiof, skandinavskii bogatyr’: Poema Tegnera v rus. per. Ia. Grota.” Poln. sobr. soch., vol. 5. Moscow, 1954.
Brandes, G. “Isaiia Tegner.” Sobr. soch., 2nd ed., vol. 2, part 2. St. Petersburg, 1906.
Braude, L. Iu. “Saga o Frit’ofe E. Tegnera i ee islandskie istochniki.” In Skandinavskii sbornik, fasc. 11. Tartu, 1966.
Wrangel, E. Tegnér i Lund, parts 1–2. Stockholm, 1932.
Böök, F. Esaias Tegnér: En biografi. Stockholm, 1963.
Nilsson, A. Svensk romantik: Tegnér. Lund, 1964.
Werin, A. Tegnér, 1782–1825. Lund-Stockholm, 1974.

A. A. MATSEVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
Some of Sweden's most famous poets, including Esaias Tegner (1782-1846), Erik Johan Stagnelius (1793-1823), Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940), Gustaf Froding (1860-1911) and Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1864-1931) emerged during this period.
Esaias Tegner, our nineteenth-century national bard, says that all the words in the Swedish referring to anything but barbarianism are loan words ("Blott barbariet var en gang fosterlandskt").
His two epic poems, Elgskyttarne (1832; "The Moose Hunters") and Hanna (1836), won him a place in Swedish literature second only to Esaias Tegner.
His other studies include Soren Kierkegaard (1877), Esaias Tegner (1878), Wolfgang Goethe (1914 - 15), and Francois de Voltaire (1916 - 17).
The first major response to the poems of Oxenstierna comes from Esaias Tegner, whose position in Swedish letters is largely that of a b ridge-builder between romantic and neo-classic ideals.
He also displayed outstanding talent as a poet; his collection Dikter (1882; "Poems") established him as Sweden's foremost lyrical poet since Esaias Tegner and Erik Stagnelius.
Esaias Tegner (1782 1846) is one of Sweden's great metaphor-makers; in his brilliant, luminous metaphors one can detect a truly imaginative talent, sometimes reminding one of Shakespeare's.