Therefore in this paper we adopt 3.2 km/s (injection from LEO to a marginal Earth escape orbit) as the size of the impulsive chemical burn that must be made at LEO to start an E-sail mission.
An injection from a marginal Earth escape orbit to a Venus transfer orbit requires a 0.3 km/s near-Earth kick and capturing from the Venus transfer orbit to a high Venus orbit requires 0.4 km/s near Venus.
For Mars, the injection from a marginal Earth escape orbit to a Mars transfer orbit requires a 0.4 km/s perigee burn and settling from the transfer orbit to a high Mars orbit another 0.7 km/s.
In Phobos sample return, an E-sail would save 3.8 km/s of impulsive [DELTA]v and enable a lighter Earth reentry shield because reentry could occur from a marginal Earth escape orbit without hyperbolic excess speed.
As with all E-sail spacecraft, any or all of the probes can be launched with any launcher that reaches an escape orbit.
A chemical rocket is the only known way of lifting a payload rapidly from LEO to a higher or escape orbit. Thus expectedly there should be a market for asteroid-derived propellants in taking satellites to their orbit.
The new Space System should enable delivering unmanned spacecraft for scientific, socioeconomic, dual and commercial purposes to earth orbits with various altitudes and inclinations (including geostationary and geosynchronous transfer orbits) and escape orbits
. The RF Ministry of Defense and ROSCOSMOS (formerly the Federal Space Agency) are the government customers, while FGUP (Federal State Unitary Enterprise) KhSC is the principal design company.