Escorial

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Escorial

(ĕskôr`ēəl, Span. āskōrēäl`) or

Escurial

(ĕskyo͝or`ēəl), monastery and palace, in New Castile, central Spain, near Madrid. One of the finest edifices in Europe, it was built (1563–84) as the monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial by Philip IIPhilip II,
1527–98, king of Spain (1556–98), king of Naples and Sicily (1554–98), and, as Philip I, king of Portugal (1580–98). Philip's Reign
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 to commemorate the Spanish victory over the French at Saint-Quentin (1557). The somber and massive pile of blue-grey granite buildings, including monastery, church, royal palace, college, library, and royal Spanish tomb, form a quadrangle with towers rising from the corners. The Escorial was begun by the architect Juan Bautista de Toledo and finished by his pupil Juan de Herrera; it was decorated by Claudio CoelloCoello, Claudio
, c.1642–1693, Spanish baroque painter. As court painter to Charles II he decorated many churches and public buildings of Madrid. His most famous work is the monumental altarpiece for the sacristy of the Escorial, filled with portraits and allegorical figures.
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, Luca GiordanoGiordano, Luca
, 1632–1705, Italian decorative painter, b. Naples. He was the pupil of Ribera and Pietro da Cortona. He imitated the works of the great masters with amazing speed and facility and ultimately based his style upon those of Veronese and Cortona.
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, and other noted artists. The Escorial has an art collection that includes paintings by VelázquezVelázquez, Diego Rodríguez de Silva y
, 1599–1660, b. Seville. He was the most celebrated painter of the Spanish school. Early Life and Work
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, RiberaRibera, Jusepe, José, or Giuseppe
, c.1590–1652, Spanish baroque painter. He studied in Valencia and Rome but at an early age settled in Naples, then a Spanish possession.
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, El GrecoGreco, El
, c.1541–1614, Greek painter in Spain, b. Candia (Iráklion), Crete. His real name was Domenicos Theotocopoulos, of which several Italian and Spanish versions are current.
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, and TintorettoTintoretto
, 1518–94, Venetian painter, whose real name was Jacopo Robusti. Tintoretto is considered one of the greatest painters in the Venetian tradition. He was called Il Tintoretto [little dyer] from his father's trade.
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.

Bibliography

See study by H. Kamen (2010).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Escorial

A palace of the kings of Spain, built by Philip II in the 16th cent. near Madrid.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Escorial

former monastery in central Spain; mausoleum of Spanish sovereigns. [Span. Hist.: NCE, 890]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Escorial

, Escurial
a village in central Spain, northwest of Madrid: site of an architectural complex containing a monastery, palace, and college, built by Philip II between 1563 and 1584
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The mention of that country sets off a series of vivid images in Hans' mind: "Inquisition, stiff ruff, Loyola, the Escurial." When he asks Clavdia if she liked Spain, she replies: "'The travelling is bad.
Charles v and Philip II imported many works of art from Flanders and from Italy, but most of these were destroyed or taken away during the Napoleonic wars, when the entire contents of the Escurial were looted and carried off by the French soldiers.
No house, though it were the Tuileries, or the Escurial, is good for anything without a master.
To the Arab the deafening noise of the fountains of European palaces like the Escurial is a scandal.
me saque a luz si la Rey.a nra sra recibio el Algalia q[ue] le embie, porque del escurial me escriven q havia llegado y de la Raya deste Rey[n]o tengo avisso de otra caxa q alli se tomo que por las senas parece la misma que yva para su Mag[esta].d."
Eppoi c'e il caso Raffaele Mertes, un giovanissimo talento che ha costruito sul 28 una carriera importante, firmando la fotografia di una vera marea di film piu ccoli e meno piccoli: Angela come te, 1988, Il senso della vertigine, 1989, Il gioco delle ombre, 1990, Ladri di futuro, 1990, Il ritorno del grande amico, 1990, Escurial, 1991, Barocco, 1991, Passi sulla luna, 1992, Adelaide, 1992, Orlando sei, 1992, Il tempo del ritorno, 1993, Come due coccodrilli, 1994, e l'episodio Libera dell'omonimo film (1993).